Most lab mice are kept in pristine conditions, but a few immunologists think a dose of dirt could make them a better model of human disease. On an unseasonably warm February morning, Mark Pierson takes a 20-minute drive to one of Minneapolis’s larger pet shops. Pierson, a researcher in an immunology laboratory at the University […]
A diet high in fiber can reshape the gut microbiome, helping people with type 2 diabetes stay healthy. A study published yesterday (March 8) in Science found that when patients with the condition ate a high-fiber diet, they had an abundance of microbial species that helped to reduce blood sugar and regulate weight compared with […]
Fans of the ’90s cartoon “The Magic School Bus” may remember one of the show’s earlier episodes, where Ms. Frizzle and her class shrink down to take a journey through a sick student’s body. Along the way, they cross paths with the very bacteria responsible for the illness. The bacteria is actually part of the […]
The gut microbiota, the ecosystem of bacteria that lives inside the human gastrointestinal tract, has been recently shown to release chemical signals that can make alterations to our genes. Research conducted at the Babraham Institute near Cambridge demonstrated that certain bacteria among the microbiota release molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These acids were able […]
Research to date has established that the gut microbiome profoundly influences the host immune system1; furthermore, dysbiosis — an altered composition of the gut microbiome — has been observed in a range of disease states.2 This is not surprising, considering that approximately 90% of the cells associated with each human originate from commensal organisms, while […]
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered a way to target a specific population of bacteria that promotes gut inflammation in mice. While more studies are needed, they believe the discovery could lead to a new target for therapy development. Scientists refer to the strategy as the “precision editing” of the gut microbiome, which […]
Insights may inform wound management techniques. Beneficial bacteria (link is external) on the skin of lab mice work with the animals’ immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Researchers […]
University of Chicago Medicine researchers report that specific microbiome assemblages can boost the response rate to immunotherapy for patients being treated for advanced melanoma. Their study (”The Commensal Microbiome Is Associated with Anti–PD-1 Efficacy in Metastatic Melanoma Patients”) is published in Science. “Anti–PD-1–based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only […]
Scientist honored for role in founding, leading field of gut microbiome research Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD, a world-renowned scientist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, has received the Sanofi-Institut Pasteur International Award for his role in founding and leading the field of gut microbiome research. Together with talented students and colleagues, Gordon’s […]
ABSTRACT The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel […]
ABSTRACT Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of […]
ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P
ABSTRACT Aims Giardiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea worldwide and its symptoms vary in intensity, which can be attributed to different parasite assemblages. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of infection caused by assemblages AII and BIV of Giardia duodenalis on the response of the small intestine, […]
ABSTRACT Microorganisms comprise the majority of living organisms on our planet. For many years, exploration of the composition of microbial communities has been performed through the PCR-based study of the small subunit rRNA gene due to its high conservation across the domains of life. The application of this method has resulted in the discovery of […]
ABSTRACT Diminished colonic health is associated with various age-related pathologies. Calorie restriction (CR) is an effective strategy to increase healthy lifespan, although underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we report the effects of lifelong CR on indicators of colonic health in aging C57Bl/6J mice. Read more at: ScienceDirect Dieuwertje E.G.Kok, Fenni Rusli, Benthe van […]
ABSTRACT We found that the cancerous pancreas harbors a markedly more abundant microbiome compared with normal pancreas in both mice and humans, and select bacteria are differentially increased in the tumorous pancreas compared with gut. Ablation of the microbiome protects against preinvasive and invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), whereas transfer of bacteria from PDA-bearing hosts, […]
ABSTRACT Cognitive decline, obesity and gut dysfunction or microbial dysbiosis occur in association. Our aim was to identify gut microbiota-metabolomics signatures preceding dementia in genetically prone (3xtg) mice, with and without superimposed high-fat diet. We examined the composition and diversity of their gut microbiota, and serum and faecal metabolites. 3xtg mice showed brain hypometabolism typical […]
ABSTRACT Intestinal dwelling parasites have evolved closely with the complex intestinal microbiota of their host, but the significance of the host microbiota for metazoan pathogens and the role of their own intestinal microbiota are still not fully known. We have found that the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris acquired a distinct intestinal microbiota from its host, […]
MINNEAPOLIS, March 29, 2018– Arrowhead Publishers released a parallel nutrition track agenda for the 4th Annual Translational Microbiome Conference, scheduled April 18-20 in Boston. The conference is designed to bring together scientists at the forefront of microbiome research with pioneering business leaders at companies generating microbiome-based medical solutions. Sponsored by Nestlé Health Science, the nutrition […]
It is heavily debated whether the use of the weedkiller glyphosate in agriculture and gardening can induce dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, negatively affecting human and animal health. Dysbiosis is an imbalance in the microbiome composition associated with conditions such as colitis, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and more. Herbicide and the Microbiome We recently highlighted new […]
Significance Studies using experimental models have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease can be triggered in the gut following interactions of brain autoimmune T lymphocytes with local microbiota.
Gnotobiotics, edited by Trenton Schoeb and Kathryn Eaton, is invaluable to those developing or managing gnotobiotic facilities.
Brigham Young University: We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new BYU study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.
Abstract For more than three decades it has been recognized that small amounts of vector saliva can significantly alter the infectivity of vector-borne pathogens and subsequent in vivo dynamics.
Abstract Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans.
Highlights •Systematic analysis of longevity-promoting microbial genetic variations •Colanic acid as a pro-longevity natural compound effective in different species