Lance Armstrong may not have tried it, but poo doping is the new item of discussion on the performance enhancement menu. It turns out elite cyclists have a couple of critters in their gut that might boost performance. The discovery began three years ago, when Lauren Petersen, a researcher at The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic […]
The gut microbiome is believed to play an important role in human health in areas as diverse as brain function and the immune system. Exploring host-microbiome interactions will provide a mechanistic understanding and enable new insights in human diseases (i.e., their diagnosis, prognosis and treatment) and new perceptions of xenobiotic efficacy and/or toxicity. This workshop […]
High salt diets have previously been shown to increase severity of certain types of induced autoimmune disease in mouse models via a signaling pathway, but the impact of these diets on the gut microbiome and intestinal inflammation have not been studied. Researchers at McMaster University recently investigated this question in a paper titled “High salt […]
Growth in Gnotobiotics Research in gnotobiotic rodents and other animal models is a growing field. The rise in microbiome studies is likely responsible for this increase. This gnotobiotic renaissance has fueled exponential growth in the number of institutions operating or making plans for gnotobiotic facilities and a demand for more education. Read more at: Taconic […]
About this Document This plan was developed by the Microbiome Interagency Working Group (MIWG), an interagency working group under the Life Sciences Subcommittee (LSSC) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Committee on Science (CoS). The MIWG is a successor to the Fast Track Action Committee on Mapping the Microbiome (FTAC-MM). About the Fast […]
Spontaneous lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with an unclear cause. Nearly all lupus patients have high levels of anti-nuclear antibodies with a relatively high proportion being pathogenic anti-Ro protein antibodies. At the end of March, researchers at Yale University published a paper entitled “Commensal orthologs of the human autoantigen Ro60 as triggers […]
MINNEAPOLIS, March 29, 2018– Arrowhead Publishers released a parallel nutrition track agenda for the 4th Annual Translational Microbiome Conference, scheduled April 18-20 in Boston. The conference is designed to bring together scientists at the forefront of microbiome research with pioneering business leaders at companies generating microbiome-based medical solutions. Sponsored by Nestlé Health Science, the nutrition […]
Most lab mice are kept in pristine conditions, but a few immunologists think a dose of dirt could make them a better model of human disease. On an unseasonably warm February morning, Mark Pierson takes a 20-minute drive to one of Minneapolis’s larger pet shops. Pierson, a researcher in an immunology laboratory at the University […]
It is heavily debated whether the use of the weedkiller glyphosate in agriculture and gardening can induce dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, negatively affecting human and animal health. Dysbiosis is an imbalance in the microbiome composition associated with conditions such as colitis, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and more. Herbicide and the Microbiome We recently highlighted new […]
ABSTRACT Somatic mutations in tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), which encodes an epigenetic modifier enzyme, drive the development of haematopoietic malignancies1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In both humans and mice, TET2 deficiency leads to increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells with a net developmental bias towards the myeloid lineage1,4,8,9. However, pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation (PMP) occurs in only a fraction of […]
ABSTRACT Antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in vaccine-mediated immunity. However, for reasons that are poorly understood, these responses are highly variable between individuals. Using a mouse model, we report that antibiotic-driven intestinal dysbiosis, specifically in early life, leads to significantly impaired antibody responses to five different adjuvanted and live vaccines. Restoration of the commensal […]
ABSTRACT The gut microbiota exhibit diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that influence the host homeostasis. However, the upstream factors that affect the microbial oscillations remain elusive. Here, we focused on the potential impact of light exposure, the main factor that affects the host circadian oscillation, on the diurnal oscillations of intestinal microflora to explore the […]
ABSTRACT Stressor-exposure has been shown to exacerbate inflammation and change the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota; however stressor-induced effects on microbiota-derived metabolites and their receptors are unknown. Thus, bacterial-produced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as microbial community composition, were assessed in the colons of mice exposed to stress during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. […]
ABSTRACT The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection, while permitting life-long colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We discovered that a sensor/regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA). Specific […]
ABSTRACT A new approach for the nonmicrobicidal phenotypic manipulation of prominent gastrointestinal microbes is presented. Low micromolar concentrations of a chemical probe, acarbose, can selectively inhibit the Starch Utilization System and ablate the ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and B. fragilis strains to metabolize potato starch and pullulan. This strategy has potential therapeutic relevance for the […]
ABSTRACT Pumpkin polysaccharide is able to alleviate diabetes, but understanding of the underlining mechanism is still limited. In this study, we hypothesized that the alleviating effects of pumpkin polysaccharide is modulated via changes in the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in type 2 diabetic rats. After the type 2 diabetic model successfully […]
ABSTRACT Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile […]
ABSTRACT The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel […]
Significance Studies using experimental models have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease can be triggered in the gut following interactions of brain autoimmune T lymphocytes with local microbiota.
Gnotobiotics, edited by Trenton Schoeb and Kathryn Eaton, is invaluable to those developing or managing gnotobiotic facilities.
Brigham Young University: We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new BYU study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.
Abstract For more than three decades it has been recognized that small amounts of vector saliva can significantly alter the infectivity of vector-borne pathogens and subsequent in vivo dynamics.
Abstract Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans.
Highlights •Systematic analysis of longevity-promoting microbial genetic variations •Colanic acid as a pro-longevity natural compound effective in different species