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  • High-Fiber Diet Shifts Gut Microbes, Lowering Blood Sugar in Diabetics

    A diet high in fiber can reshape the gut microbiome, helping people with type 2 diabetes stay healthy. A study published yesterday (March 8) in Science found that when patients with the condition ate a high-fiber diet, they had an abundance of microbial species that helped to reduce blood sugar and regulate weight compared with […]

  • The (still somewhat mysterious) science behind the microbiome

    Fans of the ’90s cartoon “The Magic School Bus” may remember one of the show’s earlier episodes, where Ms. Frizzle and her class shrink down to take a journey through a sick student’s body. Along the way, they cross paths with the very bacteria responsible for the illness. The bacteria is actually part of the […]

  • The Germ and the Gene: Gut Bacteria Research Takes a Step Forward

    The gut microbiota, the ecosystem of bacteria that lives inside the human gastrointestinal tract, has been recently shown to release chemical signals that can make alterations to our genes. Research conducted at the Babraham Institute near Cambridge demonstrated that certain bacteria among the microbiota release molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These acids were able […]

  • The Gut Microbiome and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Understanding the Connection

    Research to date has established that the gut microbiome profoundly influences the host immune system1; furthermore, dysbiosis — an altered composition of the gut microbiome — has been observed in a range of disease states.2 This is not surprising, considering that approximately 90% of the cells associated with each human originate from commensal organisms, while […]

  • Researchers Target Specific Gut Bacteria to Control Inflammation in Mice Study of Colitis

    Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered a way to target a specific population of bacteria that promotes gut inflammation in mice. While more studies are needed, they believe the discovery could lead to a new target for therapy development. Scientists refer to the strategy as the “precision editing” of the gut microbiome, which […]

  • NIH scientists find microbes on the skin of mice promote tissue healing, immunity

    Insights may inform wound management techniques. Beneficial bacteria (link is external) on the skin of lab mice work with the animals’ immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Researchers […]

  • Gut Microbiome Assemblage Impacts Response to Cancer Immunotherapy

    University of Chicago Medicine researchers report that specific microbiome assemblages can boost the response rate to immunotherapy for patients being treated for advanced melanoma. Their study (”The Commensal Microbiome Is Associated with Anti–PD-1 Efficacy in Metastatic Melanoma Patients”) is published in Science. “Anti–PD-1–based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only […]

  • Gordon receives Sanofi-Institut Pasteur Award

    Scientist honored for role in founding, leading field of gut microbiome research Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD, a world-renowned scientist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, has received the Sanofi-Institut Pasteur International Award for his role in founding and leading the field of gut microbiome research. Together with talented students and colleagues, Gordon’s […]

  • A New Antibiotic Weakness—Drugs Themselves Help Bacteria Survive

    Antibiotics save lives, but they are not fail-safe. Even when microbes haven’t acquired drug-evading genetic mutations—a hallmark of antibiotic resistance—the medications don’t always clear infections. A new study identifies a surprising reason why: At infection sites, antibiotics change the natural mixture of chemicals made by the body in ways that protect infecting bacteria. They also […]

  • Microbiome-metabolome signatures in mice genetically prone to develop dementia, fed a normal or fatty diet

    ABSTRACT Cognitive decline, obesity and gut dysfunction or microbial dysbiosis occur in association. Our aim was to identify gut microbiota-metabolomics signatures preceding dementia in genetically prone (3xtg) mice, with and without superimposed high-fat diet. We examined the composition and diversity of their gut microbiota, and serum and faecal metabolites. 3xtg mice showed brain hypometabolism typical […]

  • Manipulation of host and parasite microbiotas: Survival strategies during chronic nematode infection

    ABSTRACT Intestinal dwelling parasites have evolved closely with the complex intestinal microbiota of their host, but the significance of the host microbiota for metazoan pathogens and the role of their own intestinal microbiota are still not fully known. We have found that the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris acquired a distinct intestinal microbiota from its host, […]

  • The Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease–Like Ileitis

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn’s disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice. Read more at: […]

  • Calcineurin B in CD4+ T Cells Prevents Autoimmune Colitis by Negatively Regulating the JAK/STAT Pathway

    ABSTRACT Calcineurin (Cn) is a protein phosphatase that regulates the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, which are key regulators of T-cell development and function. Here, we generated a conditional Cnb1 mouse model in which Cnb1 was specifically deleted in CD4+ T cells (Cnb1CD4 mice) to delineate the […]

  • Rapid environmental effects on gut nematode susceptibility in rewilded mice

    ABSTRACT Genetic and environmental factors shape host susceptibility to infection, but how and how rapidly environmental variation might alter the susceptibility of mammalian genotypes remains unknown. Here, we investigate the impacts of seminatural environments upon the nematode susceptibility profiles of inbred C57BL/6 mice. We hypothesized that natural exposure to microbes might directly (e.g., via trophic […]

  • Translocation of a gut pathobiont drives autoimmunity in mice and humans

    ABSTRACT Despite multiple associations between the microbiota and immune diseases, their role in autoimmunity is poorly understood. We found that translocation of a gut pathobiont, Enterococcus gallinarum, to the liver and other systemic tissues triggers autoimmune responses in a genetic background predisposing to autoimmunity. Antibiotic treatment prevented mortality in this model, suppressed growth of E. […]

  • The influence of caging, bedding, and diet on the composition of the microbiota in different regions of the mouse gut

    ABSTRACT Countless studies have identified differences between the gut microbiota of humans affected with myriad conditions and healthy individuals, and animal models are commonly used to determine whether those differences are causative or correlative. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the reproducibility of animal models between institutions and across time. To determine the influence of three […]

  • Dietary Tryptophan Restriction Dose-Dependently Modulates Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, and Microbiota in Obesity-Prone Rats

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. Methods Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan […]

  • Human milk oligosaccharides protect against the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD-mice

    ABSTRACT Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that “programs” the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses […]

  • Microbiome Cycles Revealed by Low-Cost Gnotobiotic Cages

    While developing a low-cost alternative to traditional gnotobiotic isolators, a team of researchers at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) were able to characterize cyclical changes in the microbiomes of gnotobiotic mice. Their research has implications for both the design and affordability of gnotobiotic animal model research. High Cost of Gnotobiotic Isolators Isolators are the gold […]

  • The conundrum with animal models of the human microbiome

    ‘The most that can be expected from any model is that it can supply a useful approximation to reality: All models are wrong; some models are useful.’ This aphorism, simply articulated here by prominent British statistician George Box, gets to the crux of the dilemma we face when considering animal models for the study of […]

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    We maintain a calendar of events and meetings related to the field of Microbiome Research. Check it often for new events and conferences, or submit something for the calendar here.

  • Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    Significance Studies using experimental models have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease can be triggered in the gut following interactions of brain autoimmune T lymphocytes with local microbiota.


    Gnotobiotics, edited by Trenton Schoeb and Kathryn Eaton, is invaluable to those developing or managing gnotobiotic facilities.

  • Stress could be just as unhealthy as junk food

    Brigham Young University: We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new BYU study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.

  • Infection via mosquito bite alters Zika virus replication kinetics in rhesus macaques

    Abstract For more than three decades it has been recognized that small amounts of vector saliva can significantly alter the infectivity of vector-borne pathogens and subsequent in vivo dynamics.

  • Of Mice, Dirty Mice, and Men: Using Mice To Understand Human Immunology

    Abstract Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans.

  • Microbial Genetic Composition Tunes Host Longevity

    Highlights •Systematic analysis of longevity-promoting microbial genetic variations •Colanic acid as a pro-longevity natural compound effective in different species

  • Learning more about the gut microbiota

    The GMFH editing team recommends these book selections on the topic.

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