A myriad of factors can influence the gut microbiota composition of laboratory rats and mice: diet, stress, circadian rhythm, vendor source, how they are housed, and more. Since different gut microbiota compositions can elicit different phenotypes under otherwise similar experimental conditions, understanding what shapes the rodent microbiome is becoming increasingly important for researchers. Husbandry-Induced Microbiome […]
Clostridium difficile is a significant source of infectious disease death in the United States, and C. difficile infection can be difficult to treat. Many researchers are focusing on new therapies for this major health problem, including clinical use of fecal microbiota transplantation. Dietary manipulations are another avenue of study. Researchers at the Stanford University School […]
Angela Douglas is an internationally recognized expert on symbiosis, with a number of foundational texts to her name (1, 2). In her new book, Fundamentals of Microbiome Science, Douglas synthetizes data from the burgeoning field of microbiome science in eight highly informative chapters. Topics include the origins of the animal microbiome, what we know about […]
Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD, of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, has received the 2018 Copley Medal from the Royal Society in Britain. He is being honored for his studies of human gut microbial communities, which have led to a fundamental shift in the way scientists understand the relationship between microbes, health and […]
Lance Armstrong may not have tried it, but poo doping is the new item of discussion on the performance enhancement menu. It turns out elite cyclists have a couple of critters in their gut that might boost performance. The discovery began three years ago, when Lauren Petersen, a researcher at The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic […]
The gut microbiome is believed to play an important role in human health in areas as diverse as brain function and the immune system. Exploring host-microbiome interactions will provide a mechanistic understanding and enable new insights in human diseases (i.e., their diagnosis, prognosis and treatment) and new perceptions of xenobiotic efficacy and/or toxicity. This workshop […]
High salt diets have previously been shown to increase severity of certain types of induced autoimmune disease in mouse models via a signaling pathway, but the impact of these diets on the gut microbiome and intestinal inflammation have not been studied. Researchers at McMaster University recently investigated this question in a paper titled “High salt […]
Growth in Gnotobiotics Research in gnotobiotic rodents and other animal models is a growing field. The rise in microbiome studies is likely responsible for this increase. This gnotobiotic renaissance has fueled exponential growth in the number of institutions operating or making plans for gnotobiotic facilities and a demand for more education. Read more at: Taconic […]
About this Document This plan was developed by the Microbiome Interagency Working Group (MIWG), an interagency working group under the Life Sciences Subcommittee (LSSC) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Committee on Science (CoS). The MIWG is a successor to the Fast Track Action Committee on Mapping the Microbiome (FTAC-MM). About the Fast […]
ABSTRACT Paneth cells (PCs) are epithelial cells found in the small intestine, next to intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at the base of the crypts. PCs secrete antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that regulate the commensal gut microbiota. In contrast, little is known regarding how the enteric microbiota reciprocally influences PC function. In this study, we sought to […]
SUMMARY Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative […]
ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex collection of disorders. Microbial dysbiosis as well as exposure to toxins including xenoestrogens are thought to be risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease development and relapse. Bisphenol-A has been shown to exert estrogenic activity in the colon and alter intestinal function, but the role that xenoestrogens, such as […]
ABSTRACT Intestinal epithelial Na+/H+ exchange facilitated by the apical NHE3 (Slc9a3) is a highly regulated process inhibited by intestinal pathogens and in inflammatory bowel diseases. NHE3−/− mice develop spontaneous, bacterially mediated colitis, and IBD-like dysbiosis. Disruption of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange in IBD may thus represent a host response contributing to the altered gut microbial ecology, […]
ABSTRACT Barley leaf (BL) contains abundant plant fibers, which are important substrates for the metabolism and degradation by the gut microbiota. Here we show that mice fed a diet supplemented with BL exhibited altered gut bacterial composition characterized by the enrichment of fiber-degrading bacteria Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella. Gut microbiota-mediated BL degradation promoted butyrate and propanoate […]
ABSTACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GL95) on hyperlipidaemia and gut microbiota, and its regulation mechanism in Wistar rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). UPLC-QTOF MS indicated that GL95 was enriched with triterpenoids, especially ganoderic acids. The results of the animal experiment showed […]
ABSTRACT Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States yet data are scant regarding host factors influencing pancreatic carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence support the role of the host microbiota in carcinogenesis but its role in PDAC is not well established. Read more at: Oxford Academic Ryan M Thomas, […]
ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a significant role in obesity, insulin resistance and associated liver disorders. Family Enterobacteriaceae and especially Enterobacter cloacae strain B29 have been previously linked to obesity and hepatic damage. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Therefore, we comprehensively examined the effects of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae (ATCC® 13047™) […]
ABSTRACT Triclosan (TCS) is a high-volume chemical used as an antimicrobial ingredient in more than 2000 consumer products, such as toothpaste, cosmetics, kitchenware, and toys. We report that brief exposure to TCS, at relatively low doses, causes low-grade colonic inflammation, increases colitis, and exacerbates colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. Exposure to TCS alters gut microbiota […]
Significance Studies using experimental models have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease can be triggered in the gut following interactions of brain autoimmune T lymphocytes with local microbiota.
Gnotobiotics, edited by Trenton Schoeb and Kathryn Eaton, is invaluable to those developing or managing gnotobiotic facilities.
Brigham Young University: We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new BYU study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.
Abstract For more than three decades it has been recognized that small amounts of vector saliva can significantly alter the infectivity of vector-borne pathogens and subsequent in vivo dynamics.
Abstract Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans.
Highlights •Systematic analysis of longevity-promoting microbial genetic variations •Colanic acid as a pro-longevity natural compound effective in different species