The gut microbiota, the ecosystem of bacteria that lives inside the human gastrointestinal tract, has been recently shown to release chemical signals that can make alterations to our genes. Research conducted at the Babraham Institute near Cambridge demonstrated that certain bacteria among the microbiota release molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These acids were able […]
Research to date has established that the gut microbiome profoundly influences the host immune system1; furthermore, dysbiosis — an altered composition of the gut microbiome — has been observed in a range of disease states.2 This is not surprising, considering that approximately 90% of the cells associated with each human originate from commensal organisms, while […]
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered a way to target a specific population of bacteria that promotes gut inflammation in mice. While more studies are needed, they believe the discovery could lead to a new target for therapy development. Scientists refer to the strategy as the “precision editing” of the gut microbiome, which […]
Insights may inform wound management techniques. Beneficial bacteria (link is external) on the skin of lab mice work with the animals’ immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research from scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Researchers […]
University of Chicago Medicine researchers report that specific microbiome assemblages can boost the response rate to immunotherapy for patients being treated for advanced melanoma. Their study (”The Commensal Microbiome Is Associated with Anti–PD-1 Efficacy in Metastatic Melanoma Patients”) is published in Science. “Anti–PD-1–based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only […]
Scientist honored for role in founding, leading field of gut microbiome research Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD, a world-renowned scientist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, has received the Sanofi-Institut Pasteur International Award for his role in founding and leading the field of gut microbiome research. Together with talented students and colleagues, Gordon’s […]
Antibiotics save lives, but they are not fail-safe. Even when microbes haven’t acquired drug-evading genetic mutations—a hallmark of antibiotic resistance—the medications don’t always clear infections. A new study identifies a surprising reason why: At infection sites, antibiotics change the natural mixture of chemicals made by the body in ways that protect infecting bacteria. They also […]
On September 13, 2017 researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Massachusetts Medical School simultaneously published papers in Nature on the same intriguing topic: a link between autism and infection during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Bentonite is a natural clay mineral with health-promoting effects due to high adsorption abilities with high cation exchange capacity. Previously, we found an anti-obesity effect for the Bgp35b-p bentonite produced in South Korea where its high adsorbent ability of dietary lipids possibly partially removed lipidic environment in the gut (under revision). It hypothesized that […]
ABSTRACT There is an increasing interest in the effect of dietary polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota and the possible associations between this effect and the development of obesity. However, limited information is available on how these polyphenols affect the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism. The co-action of a high-fat diet (HFD) and tea polyphenol (TP) […]
ABSTRACT The effects on fermentation processes in the digestive tract, the biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of blood in rats fed high-fat diets with Quercetin (Q) and Quercetin with Quercetin Monoglycosides (Q+MQ) preparations obtained from onion waste were evaluated. 4 groups of eight animals were fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (C), a […]
ABSTRACT Excessive consumption of sweets is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. A major chemical feature of sweets is fructose. Despite strong ties between fructose and disease, the metabolic fate of fructose in mammals remains incompletely understood. Here we use isotope tracing and mass spectrometry to track the fate of glucose and fructose carbons in […]
ABSTRACT Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma […]
ABSTRACT Postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) can affect in excess of 10% of surgical patients and can be considerably higher with risk factors including advanced age, perioperative infection, and metabolic conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. To define underlying pathophysiologic processes, we used animal models including a rat model of metabolic syndrome generated by breeding […]
ABSTRACT Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Read more at: […]
ABSTRACT Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications. Side effects including an increased risk of intestinal infections have been reported. It is assumed that PPIs can increase susceptibility to enteropathogens; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here in this study, we explored whether Lansoprazole (Laz), one of the PPIs, increases the […]
ABSTRACT The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that […]
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, there has been a pronounced shift in the study of host–microbe associations, with recognition that many of these associations are beneficial, and often critical, for a diverse array of hosts. There may also be pronounced benefits for the microbes, though this is less well empirically understood. Significant progress has been […]
The Association for Gnotobiotics, Inc. invites you to join our revitalized organization!! Following many years of inactivity, the current AG council has been working tirelessly to reorganize. In the past year we have had the organization’s incorporation status reinstated with the State of Wisconsin where the organization was first incorporated in 1966. We have also […]
Significance Studies using experimental models have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS)-like disease can be triggered in the gut following interactions of brain autoimmune T lymphocytes with local microbiota.
Gnotobiotics, edited by Trenton Schoeb and Kathryn Eaton, is invaluable to those developing or managing gnotobiotic facilities.
Brigham Young University: We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new BYU study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.
Abstract For more than three decades it has been recognized that small amounts of vector saliva can significantly alter the infectivity of vector-borne pathogens and subsequent in vivo dynamics.
Abstract Mouse models have enabled breakthroughs in our understanding of the immune system, but it has become increasingly popular to emphasize their shortcomings when translating observations to humans.
Highlights •Systematic analysis of longevity-promoting microbial genetic variations •Colanic acid as a pro-longevity natural compound effective in different species