Commensal microflora-induced T cell responses mediate progressive neurodegeneration in glaucoma

ABSTRACT Glaucoma is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The mechanisms causing glaucomatous neurodegeneration are not fully understood. Here we show, using mice deficient in T and/or B cells and adoptive cell transfer, that transient elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is sufficient to induce T-cell infiltration into the retina. […]


Neonatal selection by Toll-like receptor 5 influences long-term gut microbiota composition

ABSTRACT Alterations in enteric microbiota are associated with several highly prevalent immune-mediated and metabolic diseases1,2,3, and experiments involving faecal transplants have indicated that such alterations have a causal role in at least some such conditions4,5,6. The postnatal period is particularly critical for the development of microbiota composition, host–microbe interactions and immune homeostasis7,8,9. However, the underlying […]


Treatment with camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) prevents obesity by altering the gut microbiota and increasing energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice

ABSTRACT Objective The consumption of fruits is strongly associated with better health and higher bacterial diversity in the gut microbiota (GM). Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) is an Amazonian fruit with a unique phytochemical profile, strong antioxidant potential and purported anti-inflammatory potential. Design By using metabolic tests coupled with 16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic profiling and faecal […]


High Dose Vitamin D supplementation alters faecal microbiome and predisposes mice to more severe colitis

ABSTRACT Vitamin D has been suggested as a possible adjunctive treatment to ameliorate disease severity in human inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, the effects of diets containing high (D++, 10,000 IU/kg), moderate (D+, 2,280 IU/kg) or no vitamin D (D−) on the severity of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis in female C57Bl/6 mice were investigated. […]


A Polysaccharide Isolated from Dictyophora indusiata Promotes Recovery from Antibiotic-Driven Intestinal Dysbiosis and Improves Gut Epithelial Barrier Function in a Mouse Model

ABSTRACT Despite the tremendous biological activity of polysaccharides from the mushroom Dictyophora indusiata, its role in the restoration of gut microbiota has not yet been explored. The present study aimed to investigate whether D. indusiata polysaccharide (DIP) could modulate the recovery of gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier function after broad-spectrum antibiotic-driven dysbiosis. Alteration and […]


Standardization in host–microbiota interaction studies: challenges, gnotobiology as a tool, and perspective

ABSTRACT Considering the increasing list of diseases linked to the commensal microbiota, experimental studies of host–microbe interactions are of growing interest. Axenic and differently colonized animal models are inalienable tools to study these interactions. Factors, such as host genetics, diet, antibiotics and litter affect microbiota composition and can be confounding factors in many experimental settings. […]


Complementary intestinal mucosa and microbiota responses to caloric restriction

ABSTRACT The intestine is key for nutrient absorption and for interactions between the microbiota and its host. Therefore, the intestinal response to caloric restriction (CR) is thought to be more complex than that of any other organ. Submitting mice to 25% CR during 14 days induced a polarization of duodenum mucosa cell gene expression characterised […]


Gut microbiota modulation accounts for the neuroprotective properties of anthocyanins

ABSTRACT High-fat (HF) diets are thought to disrupt the profile of the gut microbiota in a manner that may contribute to the neuroinflammation and neurobehavioral changes observed in obesity. Accordingly, we hypothesize that by preventing HF-diet induced dysbiosis it is possible to prevent neuroinflammation and the consequent neurological disorders. Anthocyanins are flavonoids found in berries […]


Early cellular responses of germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice to Francisella tularensis infection

ABSTRACT Bacteria that are highly virulent, expressing high infectivity, and able to survive nebulization, pose great risk to the human population. One of these is Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia. F. tularensis is a subject of intense scientific interest due to the fact that vaccines for its immunoprophylaxis in humans are not yet […]


Intestinal Microbiota Disruption Reduces Regulatory T Cells and Increases Respiratory Viral Infection Mortality Through Increased IFNγ Production

ABSTRACT Alterations in gastrointestinal microbiota indirectly modulate the risk of atopic disease, but effects on respiratory viral infections are less clear. Using the murine paramyxoviral virus type 1, Sendai virus (SeV), we examined the effect of altering gastrointestinal microbiota on the pulmonary antiviral immune response. C57BL6 mice were treated with streptomycin before or during infection […]


IgA regulates the composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota by promoting symbiosis between bacteria

ABSTRACT Immunoglobulin A (IgA) promotes health by regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota, but the molecular requirements for such homeostatic IgA function remain unknown. We found that a heavily glycosylated monoclonal IgA recognizing ovalbumin coats Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), a prominent gut symbiont of the phylum Bacteroidetes. In vivo, IgA alters the expression […]


Bilophila wadsworthia aggravates high fat diet induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice

ABSTRACT Dietary lipids favor the growth of the pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia, but the relevance of this expansion in metabolic syndrome pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we showed that B. wadsworthia synergizes with high fat diet (HFD) to promote higher inflammation, intestinal barrier dysfunction and bile acid dysmetabolism, leading to higher glucose dysmetabolism and hepatic steatosis. […]


Genetically Obese Human Gut Microbiota Induces Liver Steatosis in Germ-Free Mice Fed on Normal Diet

ABSTRACT Dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to genetically obese phenotype in human. However, the effect of genetic obesity-associated gut microbiota on host hepatic metabolic deteriorations remains largely unknown. Gut microbiota from a genetically obese human donor before and after a dietary weight loss program was transplanted into germ-free C57BL/6J male mice, grouped as PreM and PostM […]


Microbiome Composition in Both Wild-Type and Disease Model Mice Is Heavily Influenced by Mouse Facility

ABSTRACT Murine models have become essential tools for understanding the complex interactions between gut microbes, their hosts, and disease. While many intra-facility factors are known to influence the structure of mouse microbiomes, the contribution of inter-facility variation to mouse microbiome composition, especially in the context of disease, remains under-investigated. We replicated microbiome experiments using identical […]


Non-nutritive sweeteners possess a bacteriostatic effect and alter gut microbiota in mice

ABSTRACT Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) are widely used in various food products and soft drinks. There is growing evidence that NNSs contribute to metabolic dysfunction and can affect body weight, glucose tolerance, appetite, and taste sensitivity. Several NNSs have also been shown to have major impacts on bacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo. Here […]


Oral infection of mice with Fusobacterium nucleatum results in macrophage recruitment to the dental pulp and bone resorption

ABSTRACT Background Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease. Some oral bacteria, like Porphyromonas gingivalis, evade the host immune response by inhibiting inflammation. On the other hand, F. nucleatum triggers inflammasome activation and release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in infected gingival epithelial cells. Methods In this study, we characterized the […]


Aryl hydrocarbon receptor/IL-22/Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the modulation of intestinal mucosa antimicrobial molecules by commensal microbiota in mice.

ABSTRACT Compelling evidence demonstrates the crucial role of the commensal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. However, the effects of commensal microbiota on intestinal mucosa antimicrobial molecules have not been elucidated systematically. Here, we investigate the impacts of antibiotic-induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota […]


Development of outbred CD1 mouse colonies with distinct standardized gut microbiota profiles for use in complex microbiota targeted studies

ABSTRACT Studies indicate that the gut microbiota (GM) can significantly influence both local and systemic host physiologic processes. With rising concern for optimization of experimental reproducibility and translatability, it is essential to consider the GM in study design. However, GM profiles can vary between rodent producers making consistency between models challenging. To circumvent this, we […]


Magnesium lithospermate B improves the gut microbiome and bile acid metabolic profiles in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

ABSTRACT Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is a new drug marketed in China to treat angina, but its low oral bioavailability limits its clinical application to the intravenous route. Paradoxically, orally administered low-dose MLB was found to alleviate kidney injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. In recent years, the […]


Gut microbiota modulate neurobehavior through changes in brain insulin sensitivity and metabolism

ABSTRACT Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have […]






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