Abstract Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome.
Abstract Streptococcus mutans employs a key virulence factor, three glucosyltransferase (GtfBCD) enzymes to establish cariogenic biofilms.
Abstract Background Age is an important risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which often develops in middle age. However, how age-associated changes in immunity impact RA is poorly understood.
Highlights • A human gut bacterium has potential as a therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) • P. histicola can suppress disease in a preclinical animal model of MS • P. histicola suppresses disease by inducing CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells
Abstract CX3CR1+ macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria contribute to gut homeostasis through the immunomodulatory interleukin IL10, but there is little knowledge on how these cells or the CX3CR1 receptor may affect colorectal carcinogenesis.
Twelve mature (aged 5–16 years) horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter) quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric.
Abstract Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals.
Highlights •For the first time galactomannan, derived from fenugreek and pectin, derived from citrus where shown to modulate gut microbiota and effect metabolic parameters and gene expression related to glucose metabolism.
Abstract Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.
Abstract The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick Ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans.
Abstract Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO).
Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation.
Abstract There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health.
Eat more plants for influenza resilience Antibiotic treatment worsens influenza in mice, possibly because the concomitant loss of the microbiota interrupts the production of bioactive metabolites.
Highlights •Drosophila display microbe-seeking behaviors as both larvae and adults •These microbial preferences are shaped by host-microbe association •Foraging decisions involve balancing cues from both microbes and nutrients
Abstract The small intestine contains CD4+CD8αα+ double-positive intraepithelial T lymphocytes (DP IELs), which originate from intestinal CD4+ T cells through downregulation of the transcription factor ThPOK and have regulatory functions.
Abstract Background and Purpose Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS).
Abstract Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens.
Abstract Recent studies in model organisms have shown that compositional variation in the microbiome can affect a variety of host phenotypes including those related to digestion, development, immunity, and behavior.
Abstract Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, phytochemicals and antioxidants making them unique compared to other foods. Consuming walnuts has been associated with health benefits including a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer.