Long-term consumption of caffeine-free high sucrose cola beverages aggravates the pathogenesis of EAE in mice

Abstract Epidemiological data provide strong evidence of dramatically increasing incidences of many autoimmune diseases in the past few decades, mainly in western and westernized countries.

Factors Influencing the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including

Potassium is a key signal in host-microbiome dysbiosis in periodontitis

Abstract Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease.

The development of lower respiratory tract microbiome in mice

Abstract Background Although culture-independent methods have paved the way for characterization of the lung microbiome, the dynamic changes in the lung microbiome from neonatal stage to adult age have not been investigated.

Differing Complex Microbiota Alter Disease Severity of the IL-10−/− Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

It is estimated that 1.4 million people in the United States suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), with an overall annual health care cost of more than $1.7 billion.

Probabilistic Invasion Underlies Natural Gut Microbiome Stability

Highlights •Establishment of commensal bacteria in the gut works like a lottery •Stochastic factors generate alternate stable states of gut colonization

Enhancement of IFNγ Production by Distinct Commensals Ameliorates Salmonella-Induced Disease

Highlights •Microbiota composition determines susceptibility to Salmonella-induced disease •Protection is associated with decreased tissue invasion of Salmonella

Impact of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy on the fecal microbiome of renal transplant recipients: Comparison between an everolimus- and a standard tacrolimus-based regimen

Highlights •Interactions between animal hosts and their microbiota occur at multiple scales. •The zebrafish is a powerful model to study many scales of host–microbe interactions.

A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis

In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems:

Microbiota regulates visceral pain in the mouse

Abstract The perception of visceral pain is a complex process involving the spinal cord and higher order brain structures. Increasing evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, yet it remains to be determined if gut bacteria play a role in visceral sensitivity.

Acute Binge Drinking Increases Serum Endotoxin and Bacterial DNA Levels in Healthy Individuals

Abstract Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined.

Microbiome restoration diet improves digestion, cognition and physical and emotional wellbeing

Abstract Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation ‘The Gut Makeover’ designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome.

Application of 1H NMR spectroscopy to the metabolic phenotyping of rodent brain extracts: A metabonomic study of gut microbial influence on host brain metabolism

Highlights •1H NMR Spectroscopy showed changes in the neurochemical profiles of regions of the brains of germ free and normal mice and rats. •1H NMR Spectroscopic analysis revealed microbiome-associated changes to be both species- and region-dependent.

Regulation of bone mass by the gut microbiota is dependent on NOD1 and NOD2 signaling

Highlights •MYD88, NOD1 and NOD2, are involved in bacterial recognition by the immune system. •WT and MYD88 deficient mice have increased bone mass when raised germ free (GF). •NOD1 and NOD2 deficient mice displayed no increase in bone mass in the GF state.

Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug

Abstract Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action.

Interaction Between Familial Transmission and a Constitutively Active Immune System Shapes Gut Microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster

Abstract Resident gut bacteria are constantly influencing the immune system, yet the role of the immune system in shaping microbiota composition during an organism’s life span has remained unclear.

Thermoneutral housing exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and allows for sex-independent disease modeling

Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide.

Parasitic protozoa and interactions with the host intestinal microbiota

Abstract Parasitic protozoan infections represent a major health burden in the developing world and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. These infections are often associated with considerable variability

Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae

Abstract Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis

Evolution of commensal bacteria in the intestinal tract of mice

Highlights •The composition of the gut microbiota is shaped by positive and negative microbe–microbe and host-microbe interactions.

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