Highlights •Bacteria differentially affect the C. elegans response to FUDR and camptothecin •Bacterial metabolism is required for the C. elegans chemotherapeutic response •Genetic screens with two bacterial species and three drugs to unravel mechanism
Abstract Levels of inflammatory mediators in circulation are known to increase with age, but the underlying cause of this age-associated inflammation is debated.
ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified protozoan cause of intestinal infection.
Abstract Asthma is a chronic, non-curable, multifactorial disease with increasing incidence in industrial countries.
Abstract The high susceptibility of neonates to infections has been assumed to be due to immaturity of the immune system, but the mechanism remains unclear.
Highlights •We introduce tools for modulating microbiome gene expression inside the gut •Engineered promoters couple gene expression in Bacteroides to a synthetic inducer
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development.
Viruses compound dietary pathology Reoviruses commonly infect humans and mice asymptomatically. Bouziat et al. found that immune responses to two gut-infecting reoviruses take different paths in mice (see the Perspective by Verdu and Caminero).
Abstract Background Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) develop as a result of a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, and environmental influences.
Highlights •Age-associated inflammation drives macrophage dysfunction and tissue damage •Mice under germ-free conditions are protected from age-associated inflammation •Co-housing germ-free mice with old, but not young, mice increases age-related inflammation •Age-related microbiota changes can be reversed by reducing TNF levels
Abstract Purpose The protective function of the intestinal mucosa largely depends on carbohydrate moieties that as a part of glycoproteins and glycolipids form the epithelial glycocalyx or are secreted as mucins.
Abstract Background It is well known that the microbiota of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice differs from that of lean mice, but to what extent, this difference reflects the obese state or the diet is unclear.
Summary Emerging evidence indicates that the immune system can influence microbiome composition.
Abstract There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s health.
Abstract The profile of bile acids (BA) largely depends on the enzymatic activity of the microbiota, but this can be modulated by the dietary addition of biologically active compounds, e.g., polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Abstract There is a groundswell of interest in using genetically engineered sensor bacteria to study gut microbiota pathways, and diagnose or treat associated diseases.
Abstract Humans and mice differ substantially in their bile acid profiles as mice in addition to cholic acid (CA) predominantly synthesize 6β-hydroxylated muricholic acids (MCAs) whereas humans produces chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and CA as primary bile acids.
Abstract Over the past few years, microbiome research has dramatically reshaped our understanding of human biology.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Iron is an important nutrient for both the host and colonizing bacteria.