On the role of corticosterone in behavioral disorders, microbiota composition alteration and neuroimmune response in adult male mice subjected to maternal separation stress

ABSTRACT Experiencing psychosocial adversities in early life such as maternal seperation (MS) increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Immune-inflammatory responses have imperative roles in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. MS relatively changes the composition of intestinal microbiota leading to an overactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and subsequently increases the corticosterone level. In this study, […]


Impact of commensal flora on periodontal immune response to lipopolysaccharide

ABSTRACT 1 Background Commensal flora are involved in the appropriate development of the mature immune system. However, it is unclear how commensal flora contribute to immune responses against periodontal pathogens, including the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of immune responses after topical application of LPS in […]


A prostate derived commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strain prevents and ameliorates induction of chronic prostatitis by UPEC infection

ABSTRACT Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common syndrome with limited therapies and an unknown etiology. Previously, our laboratory has defined a potential role for pathogenic infection in disease onset. Intra-urethral infection with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain isolated from a CP/CPPS patient, CP1, induces prostatic inflammation and tactile allodynia in mice. We […]


Generation of orthotopically functional salivary gland from embryonic stem cells

ABSTRACT Organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells are used in the development of organ replacement regenerative therapy by recapitulating the process of organogenesis. These processes are strictly regulated by morphogen signalling and transcriptional networks. However, the precise transcription factors involved in the organogenesis of exocrine glands, including salivary glands, remain unknown. Here, we identify a […]


The Microbial Metabolite Butyrate Stimulates Bone Formation via T Regulatory Cell-Mediated Regulation of WNT10B Expression

SUMMARY Nutritional supplementation with probiotics can prevent pathologic bone loss. Here we examined the impact of supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone homeostasis in eugonadic young mice. Micro-computed tomography revealed that LGG increased trabecular bone volume in mice, which was due to increased bone formation. Butyrate produced in the gut following LGG ingestion, […]


Toxoplasma gondii infection triggers chronic cachexia and sustained commensal dysbiosis in mice

ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a predation-mediated transmission cycle between rodents and felines. Intermediate hosts acquire Toxoplasma by eating parasite cysts which invade the small intestine, disseminate systemically and finally establish host life-long chronic infection in brain and muscles. Here we show that Toxoplasma infection can trigger a severe form of sustained […]


Enteric infection coupled with chronic Notch pathway inhibition alters colonic mucus composition leading to dysbiosis, barrier disruption and colitis

ABSTRACT Intestinal mucus layer disruption and gut microflora modification in conjunction with tight junction (TJ) changes can increase colonic permeability that allows bacterial dissemination and intestinal and systemic disease. We showed previously that Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis is regulated by a functional cross-talk between the Notch and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. In the […]


Interactions between Roseburia intestinalis and diet modulate atherogenesis in a murine model

ABSTRACT Humans with metabolic and inflammatory diseases frequently harbour lower levels of butyrate-producing bacteria in their gut. However, it is not known whether variation in the levels of these organisms is causally linked with disease development and whether diet modifies the impact of these bacteria on health. Here we show that a prominent gut-associated butyrate-producing […]


Effects of water decontamination methods and bedding material on the gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Rodent models are invaluable to understanding health and disease in many areas of biomedical research. Unfortunately, many models suffer from lack of phenotype reproducibility. Our laboratory has shown that differences in gut microbiota (GM) can modulate phenotypes of models of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. We and others have also shown that a […]


The impact of exercise training and resveratrol supplementation on gut microbiota composition in high‐fat diet fed mice

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training and dietary supplementation of resveratrol on the composition of gut microbiota and to test the hypothesis that exercise training and resveratrol can prevent high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced changes in the gut microbiota. Mice fed a HFD supplemented with resveratrol (4 g/kg food) […]


Transmission modes of the mammalian gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Mammals house a diversity of bacteria that affect health in various ways, but the routes by which bacterial lineages are transmitted between hosts remain poorly understood. We experimentally determined microbiota transmission modes by deriving 17 inbred mouse lines from two wild populations and monitoring their gut microbiotas for up to 11 host generations. Individual- […]


Non-invasive continuous real-time in vivo analysis of microbial hydrogen production shows adaptation to fermentable carbohydrates in mice

ABSTRACT Real time in vivo methods are needed to better understand the interplay between diet and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Therefore, a rodent indirect calorimetry system was equipped with hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) sensors. H2 production was readily detected in C57BL/6J mice and followed a circadian rhythm. H2 production was increased within 12 hours after […]


Long-term intake of Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 prevents age-related chronic inflammation and retinal cell loss in physiologically aged mice.

ABSTRACT Age-related chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the incidence and prevalence of age-related diseases, including infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. We previously reported that a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110, activated macrophages and suppressed inflammation in mice and humans. In this study, we investigated whether long-term intake of heat-killed L. paracasei KW3110 […]


Dysregulated Microbial Fermentation of Soluble Fiber Induces Cholestatic Liver Cancer

SUMMARY Dietary soluble fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are considered broadly health-promoting. Accordingly, consumption of such fibers ameliorates metabolic syndrome. However, incorporating soluble fiber inulin, but not insoluble fiber, into a compositionally defined diet, induced icteric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Such HCC was microbiota-dependent and observed in multiple strains […]


Nitrated meat products are associated with mania in humans and altered behavior and brain gene expression in rats

ABSTRACT Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. We measured dietary exposures in a cohort of individuals with mania and other psychiatric disorders as well as in control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. We found that a history […]


Microbial Changes and Host Response in F344 Rat Colon Depending on Sex and Age Following a High-Fat Diet

Gut microbiota, an important component that affects host health, change rapidly and directly in response to altered diet composition. Recently, the role of diet–microbiome interaction on the development of colon cancer has been the focus of interest. Colon cancer occurs more frequently in an aged population, and in males. However, the effect of dietary changes […]


Replication Study: Intestinal inflammation targets cancer-inducing activity of the microbiota

ABSTRACT As part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology we published a Registered Report (Eaton et al., 2015) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper “Intestinal Inflammation Targets Cancer-Inducing Activity of the Microbiota” (Arthur et al., 2012). Here we report the results. We observed no impact on bacterial growth or […]


Chronic nonbacterial prostate inflammation in a rat model is associated with changes of gut microbiota that can be modified with a galactoglucomannan‐rich hemicellulose extract in diet

ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate dietary effects on the gut microbiota composition in a rat model of chronic non‐bacterial prostate inflammation. Materials and Methods Chronic nonbacterial prostate inflammation in the Wistar rat strain was induced with subcutaneous testosterone and 17β‐oestradiol hormone pellets for 18 weeks. Rats with placebo pellets served as healthy controls. Rats with chronic […]


Nod2 Deficiency in mice is Associated with Microbiota Variation Favouring the Expansion of mucosal CD4+ LAP+ Regulatory Cells

ABSTRACT Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-2 (NOD2) mutations are associated with an increased risk to develop Crohn’s Disease. In previous studies, we have shown that Nod2−/− mice manifest increased proportion of Lamina Propria (LP) CD4+ LAP+ Foxp3− regulatory cells, when compared with Nod2+/+ mice, while CD4+ Foxp3 + regulatory cells were not affected. Here, we investigated the Nod2 gut […]


The mammalian mycobiome: A complex system in a dynamic relationship with the host

ABSTRACT Mammalian barrier surfaces are densely populated by symbiont fungi in much the same way the former are colonized by symbiont bacteria. The fungal microbiota, otherwise known as the mycobiota, is increasingly recognized as a critical player in the maintenance of health and homeostasis of the host. Here we discuss the impact of the mycobiota […]






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