The enteric microbiota regulates jejunal Paneth cell number and function without impacting intestinal stem cells

ABSTRACT Paneth cells (PCs) are epithelial cells found in the small intestine, next to intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at the base of the crypts. PCs secrete antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that regulate the commensal gut microbiota. In contrast, little is known regarding how the enteric microbiota reciprocally influences PC function. In this study, we sought to […]

Intermittent Fasting Confers Protection in CNS Autoimmunity by Altering the Gut Microbiota

SUMMARY Multiple sclerosis (MS) is more common in western countries with diet being a potential contributing factor. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) ameliorated clinical course and pathology of the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IF led to increased gut bacteria richness, enrichment of the Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae families and enhanced antioxidative […]

Bisphenol-A alters microbiota metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids and worsens disease activity during colitis

ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex collection of disorders. Microbial dysbiosis as well as exposure to toxins including xenoestrogens are thought to be risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease development and relapse. Bisphenol-A has been shown to exert estrogenic activity in the colon and alter intestinal function, but the role that xenoestrogens, such as […]

Microbial dysbiosis associated with impaired intestinal Na+/H+ exchange accelerates and exacerbates colitis in ex-germ free mice

ABSTRACT Intestinal epithelial Na+/H+ exchange facilitated by the apical NHE3 (Slc9a3) is a highly regulated process inhibited by intestinal pathogens and in inflammatory bowel diseases. NHE3−/− mice develop spontaneous, bacterially mediated colitis, and IBD-like dysbiosis. Disruption of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange in IBD may thus represent a host response contributing to the altered gut microbial ecology, […]

Gut microbiota promotes production of aromatic metabolites through degradation of barley leaf fiber

ABSTRACT Barley leaf (BL) contains abundant plant fibers, which are important substrates for the metabolism and degradation by the gut microbiota. Here we show that mice fed a diet supplemented with BL exhibited altered gut bacterial composition characterized by the enrichment of fiber-degrading bacteria Lachnospiraceae and Prevotella. Gut microbiota-mediated BL degradation promoted butyrate and propanoate […]

Ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum ameliorates lipid metabolic disorders and modulates the gut microbiota composition in high-fat diet fed rats

ABSTACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GL95) on hyperlipidaemia and gut microbiota, and its regulation mechanism in Wistar rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). UPLC-QTOF MS indicated that GL95 was enriched with triterpenoids, especially ganoderic acids. The results of the animal experiment showed […]

Intestinal microbiota enhances pancreatic carcinogenesis in preclinical models

ABSTRACT Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States yet data are scant regarding host factors influencing pancreatic carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence support the role of the host microbiota in carcinogenesis but its role in PDAC is not well established. Read more at: Oxford Academic Ryan M Thomas, […]

Enterobacter cloacae administration induces hepatic damage and subcutaneous fat accumulation in high-fat diet fed mice

ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a significant role in obesity, insulin resistance and associated liver disorders. Family Enterobacteriaceae and especially Enterobacter cloacae strain B29 have been previously linked to obesity and hepatic damage. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Therefore, we comprehensively examined the effects of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae (ATCC® 13047™) […]

A common antimicrobial additive increases colonic inflammation and colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice

ABSTRACT Triclosan (TCS) is a high-volume chemical used as an antimicrobial ingredient in more than 2000 consumer products, such as toothpaste, cosmetics, kitchenware, and toys. We report that brief exposure to TCS, at relatively low doses, causes low-grade colonic inflammation, increases colitis, and exacerbates colitis-associated colon cancer in mice. Exposure to TCS alters gut microbiota […]

Microbial signals drive pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation in a Tet2-deficient host

ABSTRACT Somatic mutations in tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), which encodes an epigenetic modifier enzyme, drive the development of haematopoietic malignancies1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In both humans and mice, TET2 deficiency leads to increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells with a net developmental bias towards the myeloid lineage1,4,8,9. However, pre-leukaemic myeloproliferation (PMP) occurs in only a fraction of […]

Early-Life Antibiotic-Driven Dysbiosis Leads to Dysregulated Vaccine Immune Responses in Mice

ABSTRACT Antibody-mediated responses play a critical role in vaccine-mediated immunity. However, for reasons that are poorly understood, these responses are highly variable between individuals. Using a mouse model, we report that antibiotic-driven intestinal dysbiosis, specifically in early life, leads to significantly impaired antibody responses to five different adjuvanted and live vaccines. Restoration of the commensal […]

Light exposure influences the diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota in mice

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota exhibit diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that influence the host homeostasis. However, the upstream factors that affect the microbial oscillations remain elusive. Here, we focused on the potential impact of light exposure, the main factor that affects the host circadian oscillation, on the diurnal oscillations of intestinal microflora to explore the […]

Prolonged restraint stressor exposure in outbred CD-1 mice impacts microbiota, colonic inflammation, and short chain fatty acids

ABSTRACT Stressor-exposure has been shown to exacerbate inflammation and change the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota; however stressor-induced effects on microbiota-derived metabolites and their receptors are unknown. Thus, bacterial-produced short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as microbial community composition, were assessed in the colons of mice exposed to stress during infection with Citrobacter rodentium. […]

Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization

ABSTRACT The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection, while permitting life-long colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We discovered that a sensor/regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA). Specific […]

Nonmicrobicidal Small Molecule Inhibition of Polysaccharide Metabolism in Human Gut Microbes: A Potential Therapeutic Avenue

ABSTRACT A new approach for the nonmicrobicidal phenotypic manipulation of prominent gastrointestinal microbes is presented. Low micromolar concentrations of a chemical probe, acarbose, can selectively inhibit the Starch Utilization System and ablate the ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and B. fragilis strains to metabolize potato starch and pullulan. This strategy has potential therapeutic relevance for the […]

Pumpkin polysaccharide modifies the gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes in rats

ABSTRACT Pumpkin polysaccharide is able to alleviate diabetes, but understanding of the underlining mechanism is still limited. In this study, we hypothesized that the alleviating effects of pumpkin polysaccharide is modulated via changes in the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in type 2 diabetic rats. After the type 2 diabetic model successfully […]

Targeting the gut microbiome to treat the osteoarthritis of obesity

ABSTRACT Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile […]

Small Intestine Microbiota Regulate Host Digestive and Absorptive Adaptive Responses to Dietary Lipids

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel […]

Oral Antibiotic Treatment of Mice Exacerbates the Disease Severity of Multiple Flavivirus Infections

ABSTRACT Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of […]

Chitosan oligosaccharides improve the disturbance in glucose metabolism and reverse the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in diabetic mice

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P 

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