Abstract Epidemiological data provide strong evidence of dramatically increasing incidences of many autoimmune diseases in the past few decades, mainly in western and westernized countries.
Abstract The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including
Abstract Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease.
Abstract Background Although culture-independent methods have paved the way for characterization of the lung microbiome, the dynamic changes in the lung microbiome from neonatal stage to adult age have not been investigated.
It is estimated that 1.4 million people in the United States suffer from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), with an overall annual health care cost of more than $1.7 billion.
Highlights •Establishment of commensal bacteria in the gut works like a lottery •Stochastic factors generate alternate stable states of gut colonization
Highlights •Microbiota composition determines susceptibility to Salmonella-induced disease •Protection is associated with decreased tissue invasion of Salmonella
Highlights •Interactions between animal hosts and their microbiota occur at multiple scales. •The zebrafish is a powerful model to study many scales of host–microbe interactions.
In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems:
Abstract The perception of visceral pain is a complex process involving the spinal cord and higher order brain structures. Increasing evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a key regulator of brain and behavior, yet it remains to be determined if gut bacteria play a role in visceral sensitivity.
Abstract Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined.
Abstract Manipulating gut bacteria in the microbiome, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, has been found to have an influence on both physical and emotional wellbeing. This study uses a dietary manipulation ‘The Gut Makeover’ designed to elicit positive changes to the gut bacteria within the microbiome.
Highlights •1H NMR Spectroscopy showed changes in the neurochemical profiles of regions of the brains of germ free and normal mice and rats. •1H NMR Spectroscopic analysis revealed microbiome-associated changes to be both species- and region-dependent.
Highlights •MYD88, NOD1 and NOD2, are involved in bacterial recognition by the immune system. •WT and MYD88 deficient mice have increased bone mass when raised germ free (GF). •NOD1 and NOD2 deficient mice displayed no increase in bone mass in the GF state.
Abstract Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action.
Abstract Resident gut bacteria are constantly influencing the immune system, yet the role of the immune system in shaping microbiota composition during an organism’s life span has remained unclear.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide.
Abstract Parasitic protozoan infections represent a major health burden in the developing world and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. These infections are often associated with considerable variability
Abstract Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). To investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis
Highlights •The composition of the gut microbiota is shaped by positive and negative microbe–microbe and host-microbe interactions.