Small Intestine Microbiota Regulate Host Digestive and Absorptive Adaptive Responses to Dietary Lipids

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel […]

Oral Antibiotic Treatment of Mice Exacerbates the Disease Severity of Multiple Flavivirus Infections

ABSTRACT Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV), Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx) that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of […]

Chitosan oligosaccharides improve the disturbance in glucose metabolism and reverse the dysbiosis of gut microbiota in diabetic mice

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P 

Comparative study of effects of assemblages AII and BIV of Giardia duodenalis on mucosa and microbiota of the small intestine in mice

ABSTRACT Aims Giardiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea worldwide and its symptoms vary in intensity, which can be attributed to different parasite assemblages. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of infection caused by assemblages AII and BIV of Giardia duodenalis on the response of the small intestine, […]

Hybridization capture reveals microbial diversity missed using current profiling methods

ABSTRACT Microorganisms comprise the majority of living organisms on our planet. For many years, exploration of the composition of microbial communities has been performed through the PCR-based study of the small subunit rRNA gene due to its high conservation across the domains of life. The application of this method has resulted in the discovery of […]

Lifelong calorie restriction affects indicators of colonic health in aging C57Bl/6J mice

ABSTRACT Diminished colonic health is associated with various age-related pathologies. Calorie restriction (CR) is an effective strategy to increase healthy lifespan, although underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we report the effects of lifelong CR on indicators of colonic health in aging C57Bl/6J mice. Read more at: ScienceDirect Dieuwertje E.G.Kok, Fenni Rusli, Benthe van […]

The Pancreatic Cancer Microbiome Promotes Oncogenesis by Induction of Innate and Adaptive Immune Suppression

ABSTRACT We found that the cancerous pancreas harbors a markedly more abundant microbiome compared with normal pancreas in both mice and humans, and select bacteria are differentially increased in the tumorous pancreas compared with gut. Ablation of the microbiome protects against preinvasive and invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), whereas transfer of bacteria from PDA-bearing hosts, […]

Microbiome-metabolome signatures in mice genetically prone to develop dementia, fed a normal or fatty diet

ABSTRACT Cognitive decline, obesity and gut dysfunction or microbial dysbiosis occur in association. Our aim was to identify gut microbiota-metabolomics signatures preceding dementia in genetically prone (3xtg) mice, with and without superimposed high-fat diet. We examined the composition and diversity of their gut microbiota, and serum and faecal metabolites. 3xtg mice showed brain hypometabolism typical […]

Manipulation of host and parasite microbiotas: Survival strategies during chronic nematode infection

ABSTRACT Intestinal dwelling parasites have evolved closely with the complex intestinal microbiota of their host, but the significance of the host microbiota for metazoan pathogens and the role of their own intestinal microbiota are still not fully known. We have found that the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris acquired a distinct intestinal microbiota from its host, […]

The Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease–Like Ileitis

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn’s disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice. Read more at: […]

Calcineurin B in CD4+ T Cells Prevents Autoimmune Colitis by Negatively Regulating the JAK/STAT Pathway

ABSTRACT Calcineurin (Cn) is a protein phosphatase that regulates the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, which are key regulators of T-cell development and function. Here, we generated a conditional Cnb1 mouse model in which Cnb1 was specifically deleted in CD4+ T cells (Cnb1CD4 mice) to delineate the […]

Rapid environmental effects on gut nematode susceptibility in rewilded mice

ABSTRACT Genetic and environmental factors shape host susceptibility to infection, but how and how rapidly environmental variation might alter the susceptibility of mammalian genotypes remains unknown. Here, we investigate the impacts of seminatural environments upon the nematode susceptibility profiles of inbred C57BL/6 mice. We hypothesized that natural exposure to microbes might directly (e.g., via trophic […]

Translocation of a gut pathobiont drives autoimmunity in mice and humans

ABSTRACT Despite multiple associations between the microbiota and immune diseases, their role in autoimmunity is poorly understood. We found that translocation of a gut pathobiont, Enterococcus gallinarum, to the liver and other systemic tissues triggers autoimmune responses in a genetic background predisposing to autoimmunity. Antibiotic treatment prevented mortality in this model, suppressed growth of E. […]

The influence of caging, bedding, and diet on the composition of the microbiota in different regions of the mouse gut

ABSTRACT Countless studies have identified differences between the gut microbiota of humans affected with myriad conditions and healthy individuals, and animal models are commonly used to determine whether those differences are causative or correlative. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the reproducibility of animal models between institutions and across time. To determine the influence of three […]

Dietary Tryptophan Restriction Dose-Dependently Modulates Energy Balance, Gut Hormones, and Microbiota in Obesity-Prone Rats

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. Methods Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan […]

Human milk oligosaccharides protect against the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD-mice

ABSTRACT Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that “programs” the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses […]

TRIM31 Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism and Disrupted Gut Microbiota in Mice

ABSTRACT Tripartite motif-containing protein 31 (TRIM31), an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the tripartite motif family, plays an important role in the innate immune response. It can reduce the activity of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. However, little information is about glucose metabolic health of TRIM31-deficient mice, and […]

Neuroprotective effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice: gut microbiota, glial reaction and TLR4/TNF-α signaling pathway

ABSTRACT Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. […]

Rotenone induces gastrointestinal pathology and microbiota alterations in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

ABSTRACT While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior […]

Influence of gemcitabine chemotherapy on the microbiota of pancreatic cancer xenografted mice

ABSTRACT Background and aims Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of cancer-related death. We aimed to evaluate whether gemcitabine treatment shapes the gut microbiota in a model of PDAC xenografted mice. Materials and methods Materials and methods Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to gemcitabine injection once per week for 3 weeks to […]

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