The Glucoamylase Inhibitor Acarbose Has a Diet-Dependent and Reversible Effect on the Murine Gut Microbiome

Abstract Acarbose is a safe and effective medication for type 2 diabetes that inhibits host glucoamylases to prevent starch digestion in the small intestines and thus decrease postprandial blood glucose levels. This results in an increase in dietary starch in the distal intestine, where it becomes food for the gut bacterial community. Here, we examined […]


Testosterone disruptor effect and gut microbiome perturbation in mice: Early life exposure to doxycycline

ABSTRACT Veterinary tetracycline drugs are emerging organic pollutants detected at high concentrations in the urine of school children and a potential public health risk. However, the implications of early-life exposure to tetracyclines on testosterone production, being new endocrine disruptors, remain unknown. We investigated whether the early-life exposure to low-doxycycline, a widely used tetracycline, on mitochondria […]


Synbiotic-driven improvement of metabolic disturbances is associated with changes in the gut microbiome in diet-induced obese mice

ABSTRACT Objective The gut microbiota is an important influencing factor of metabolic health. Although dietary interventions with probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can be effective means to regulate obesity and associated comorbidities, the underlying shifts in gut microbial communities, especially at the functional level, have not been characterized in great details. In this study, we sought […]


The gut microbiome is required for full protection against acute arsenic toxicity in mouse models

ABSTRACT Arsenic poisons an estimated 200 million people worldwide through contaminated food and drinking water. Confusingly, the gut microbiome has been suggested to both mitigate and exacerbate arsenic toxicity. Here, we show that the microbiome protects mice from arsenic-induced mortality. Both antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice excrete less arsenic in stool and accumulate more arsenic in […]


Commensal Microbiota Promote Lung Cancer Development via γδ T Cells

SUMMARY Lung cancer is closely associated with chronic inflammation, but the causes of inflammation and the specific immune mediators have not been fully elucidated. The lung is a mucosal tissue colonized by a diverse bacterial community, and pulmonary infections commonly present in lung cancer patients are linked to clinical outcomes. Here, we provide evidence that […]


Estrogen signaling in arcuate Kiss1 neurons suppresses a sex-dependent female circuit promoting dense strong bones

ABSTRACT Central estrogen signaling coordinates energy expenditure, reproduction, and in concert with peripheral estrogen impacts skeletal homeostasis in females. Here, we ablate estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the medial basal hypothalamus and find a robust bone phenotype only in female mice that results in exceptionally strong trabecular and cortical bones, whose density surpasses other reported […]


A defined commensal consortium elicits CD8 T cells and anti-cancer immunity

ABSTRACT There is a growing appreciation for the importance of the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target in various diseases. However, there are only a handful of known commensal strains that can potentially be used to manipulate host physiological functions. Here we isolate a consortium of 11 bacterial strains from healthy human donor faeces that […]


The Metabolic Response to a Low Amino Acid Diet is Independent of Diet-Induced Shifts in the Composition of the Gut Microbiome

ABSTRACT Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in prevalence around the world, and there is a clear need for new and effective strategies to promote metabolic health. A low protein (LP) diet improves metabolic health in both rodents and humans, but the mechanisms that underlie this effect remain unknown. The gut microbiome has recently […]


Asperlin Stimulates Energy Expenditure and Modulates Gut Microbiota in HFD-Fed Mice

ABSTRACT Asperlin is a marine-derived, natural product with antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. In the present study, we showed that asperlin effectively prevented the development of obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Oral administration of asperlin for 12 weeks significantly suppressed HFD-induced body weight gain and fat deposition without inhibiting food intake. Hyperlipidemia and liver […]


Obesity Aggravates Acute Pancreatitis via Damaging Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Changing Microbiota Composition in Rats

ABSTRACT Obesity may aggravate acute pancreatitis (AP) through damaging the intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB). The underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to provide further data to clarify the mechanism. 48 rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal control (NC), chow-fed rats with sham operation, 2) no-obese rats with AP (NAP), chow-fed rats […]


Lactobacillus sakei Alleviates High‐fat Diet‐induced Obesity and Anxiety in Mice by Inducing AMPK Activation and SIRT1 Expression and Inhibiting Gut Microbiota‐mediated NF‐κB Activation

ABSTRACT Scope Long‐term feeding of a high‐fat diet (HFD) causes gastrointestinal inflammation and gut microbiota disturbance, leading to the increased occurrence of obesity and anxiety. In the present study, we examined the effects of heat‐labile Lactobacillus sakei OK67, tyndallized OK67 (tOK67), and heat‐stable Lactobacillus sakei PK16 on HFD‐induced obesity and anxiety in mice. Methods and […]


Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Clostridium difficile Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health threat worldwide. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enhanced susceptibility to and severity of CDI; however, the mechanisms driving this phenomenon have not been elucidated. NSAIDs alter prostaglandin (PG) metabolism by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Here, we found that treatment with […]


Mechanisms Underlying Microbial-Mediated Changes in Social Behavior in Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder

SUMMARY Currently, there are no medications that effectively treat the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We recently found that the bacterial species Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri reverses social deficits in maternal high-fat-diet offspring. However, whether the effect of L. reuteri on social behavior is generalizable to other ASD models and its mechanism(s) of action […]


Insights into a Possible Mechanism Underlying the Connection of Carbendazim-Induced Lipid Metabolism Disorder and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Mice

ABSTRACT Carbendazim (CBZ), a systemic, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide, is widely used to control fungal diseases and has been regarded as an endocrine disruptor that causes mammalian toxicity in different target organs. Here, we discovered that chronic administrations of CBZ at 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks not only changed the composition of gut […]


General Anesthesia Alters the Diversity and Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

ABSTRACT Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been shown to result in altered immune responses and increased susceptibility to infection; as such, the state of the intestinal microbiome may have profound implications in the perioperative setting. In this first-in-class study, we used 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and analysis in a mouse model of general anesthesia […]


Cesarean Section Induces Microbiota-Regulated Immune Disturbances in C57BL/6 Mice

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have shown that children born by cesarean section (CS) are at higher risk of developing chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that a skewed gut microbial colonization process early in life and altered priming of the immune system are causative. The aim of this study was to clarify whether impaired […]


On the role of corticosterone in behavioral disorders, microbiota composition alteration and neuroimmune response in adult male mice subjected to maternal separation stress

ABSTRACT Experiencing psychosocial adversities in early life such as maternal seperation (MS) increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Immune-inflammatory responses have imperative roles in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. MS relatively changes the composition of intestinal microbiota leading to an overactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and subsequently increases the corticosterone level. In this study, […]


Impact of commensal flora on periodontal immune response to lipopolysaccharide

ABSTRACT 1 Background Commensal flora are involved in the appropriate development of the mature immune system. However, it is unclear how commensal flora contribute to immune responses against periodontal pathogens, including the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of immune responses after topical application of LPS in […]


A prostate derived commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strain prevents and ameliorates induction of chronic prostatitis by UPEC infection

ABSTRACT Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common syndrome with limited therapies and an unknown etiology. Previously, our laboratory has defined a potential role for pathogenic infection in disease onset. Intra-urethral infection with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain isolated from a CP/CPPS patient, CP1, induces prostatic inflammation and tactile allodynia in mice. We […]


Generation of orthotopically functional salivary gland from embryonic stem cells

ABSTRACT Organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells are used in the development of organ replacement regenerative therapy by recapitulating the process of organogenesis. These processes are strictly regulated by morphogen signalling and transcriptional networks. However, the precise transcription factors involved in the organogenesis of exocrine glands, including salivary glands, remain unknown. Here, we identify a […]






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