Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase the Susceptibility of Mice to Oral Infection with Enteropathogenic Bacteria

ABSTRACT Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most frequently prescribed medications. Side effects including an increased risk of intestinal infections have been reported. It is assumed that PPIs can increase susceptibility to enteropathogens; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here in this study, we explored whether Lansoprazole (Laz), one of the PPIs, increases the […]

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Commensal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains Differentially Restore Intestinal and Systemic Adaptive Immune Cell Populations Following Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

ABSTRACT The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that […]

Maternal metabolic, immune, and microbial systems in late pregnancy vary with malnutrition in mice.

ABSTRACT Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor […]

Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice

ABSTRACT The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive […]

Changes in mouse gut bacterial community in response to different types of drinking water

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota exerts a fundamental role on host physiology, and how extrinsic perturbations influence its composition has been increasingly examined. However, the effect of drinking water on gut microbiota is still poorly understood. In this study, we explored the response of mouse gut bacterial community (fecal and mucosa-adhered) to the ingestion of different types […]

Microbiota Reconstitution Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Germ-Free Mice

ABSTRACT Annually, an estimated 2 million osteoporotic fractures occur in the United States alone. Osteoporosis imparts a great burden on the health care system. The identification of novel regulators of bone health is critical for developing more effective therapeutics. A previous study on the colonization of germ-free (GF) mice with a microbial community has demonstrated […]

The commensal microbiome is associated with anti–PD-1 efficacy in metastatic melanoma patients

ABSTRACT Anti–PD-1–based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients’ microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples […]

Particle size determines the anti-inflammatory effect of wheat bran in a model of fructose over-consumption: Implication of the gut microbiota

ABSTRACT We investigated the impact of the particle size of wheat bran on gut dysbiosis and inflammation induced by a fructose overload. Mice received drinking water with or without fructose (30%) and a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% of wheat bran fractions characterized by different average particle sizes (1690 µm versus 150 µm) for 8 weeks. […]

Intestinal Ralstonia pickettii augments glucose intolerance in obesity

ABSTRACT An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we report that bacterial DNA is […]

Prebiotic Effect of Fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis on Alzheimer’s Disease in Rodent Models by Targeting the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota influences the central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prebiotics and probiotics can improve the host cognition. A previous study demonstrated that fructooligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis (OMO) exert effective memory improvements in AD-like animals, thereby considered as potential prebiotics; however, the underlying mechanism still remains enigma. Read more at: […]

Heterogeneity of the gut microbiome in mice: guidelines for optimizing experimental design

ABSTRACT Targeted manipulation of the gut flora is increasingly being recognized as a means to improve human health. Yet, the temporal dynamics and intra- and interindividual heterogeneity of the microbiome represent experimental limitations, especially in human cross-sectional studies. Therefore, rodent models represent an invaluable tool to study the host–microbiota interface. Progress in technical and computational […]

Removal of the cecum affects intestinal fermentation, enteric bacterial community structure, and acute colitis in mice

ABSTRACT The murine cecum is a major site of fermentation of dietary materials, and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). To examine the role that the cecum plays in acute bacterial infection in mice, the cecum was surgically removed, and changes in bacterial communities and production of SCFAs were analyzed relative to surgical sham […]

Deficiency of essential dietary n-3 PUFA disrupts the caecal microbiome and metabolome in mice

ABSTRACT n-3 PUFA are lipids that play crucial roles in immune-regulation, cardio-protection and neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the role that these essential dietary fats play in modulating caecal microbiota composition and the subsequent production of functional metabolites. To investigate this, female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of three diets (control (CON), n-3 […]

Antibiotic-Induced Changes to the Host Metabolic Environment Inhibit Drug Efficacy and Alter Immune Function

ABSTRACT Bactericidal antibiotics alter microbial metabolism as part of their lethality and can damage mitochondria in mammalian cells. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility is sensitive to extracellular metabolites, but it remains unknown whether metabolites present at an infection site can affect either treatment efficacy or immune function. Here, we quantify local metabolic changes in the host […]

Simultaneous delivery of antibiotics neomycin and ampicillin in drinking water inhibits fermentation of resistant starch in rats

ABSTRACT Scope Antibiotics ampicillin 1 g/L and neomycin 0.5 g/L were added to drinking water before or during feeding of resistant starch (RS) to rats to inhibit fermentation. Methods and results In a preliminary study, antibiotics and no RS were given prior to rats receiving a transplant of cecal contents via gavage from donor rats […]

Intergenerational transfer of antibiotic-perturbed microbiota enhances colitis in susceptible mice

ABSTRACT Antibiotic exposure in children has been associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Antibiotic use in children or in their pregnant mother can affect how the intestinal microbiome develops, so we asked whether the transfer of an antibiotic-perturbed microbiota from mothers to their children could affect their risk of developing IBD. Here […]

The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: A Review

ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal microbiome is a diverse consortium of bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses that inhabit the gut of all mammals. Studies in humans and other mammals have implicated the microbiome in a range of physiologic processes that are vital to host health including energy homeostasis, metabolism, gut epithelial health, immunologic activity, and neurobehavioral […]

Brown rice and retrograded brown rice alleviate inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice

ABSTRACT The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white […]

Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models

ABSTRACT We have experimentally investigated the immunoregulatory effects of human gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis (MS). We have identified specific bacteria that are associated with MS and demonstrated that these bacteria regulate T lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immune responses and contribute to the proinflammatory environment in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our results expand the knowledge of […]

Multi-omics Comparative Analysis Reveals Multiple Layers of Host Signaling Pathway Regulation by the Gut Microbiota

ABSTRACT The bodies of mammals are hosts to vast microbial communities composed of trillions of bacteria from thousands of species, whose effects on health and development have begun to be appreciated only recently.

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