CD1d Modulates Colonic Inflammation in NOD2−/− Mice by Altering the Intestinal Microbial Composition Comprising Acetatifactor muris

ABSTRACT AIMS NOD2 and CD1d play a key role in innate immunity by recognizing conserved molecular patterns of pathogens. While NOD2−/− and CD1d−/− mice display structural and functional alterations in Paneth cells, animal studies have reported no impact of NOD2 or CD1d deficiency on experimental colitis. NOD2 mutations increase the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases […]


Does MHC heterozygosity influence microbiota form and function?

ABSTRACT MHC molecules are essential for the adaptive immune response, and they are the most polymorphic genetic loci in vertebrates. Extreme genetic variation at these loci is paradoxical given their central importance to host health. Classic models of MHC gene evolution center on antagonistic host-pathogen interactions to promote gene diversification and allelic diversity in host […]


Absence of gut microbiota during early life affects anxiolytic Behaviors and monoamine neurotransmitters system in the hippocampal of mice

ABSTRACT The gut microbiome is composed of an enormous number of microorganisms, generally regarded as commensal bacteria. Resident gut bacteria are an important contributor to health and significant evidence suggests that the presence of healthy and diverse gut microbiota is important for normal cognitive and emotional processing. Here we measured the expression of monoamine neurotransmitter-related […]


Sex-specific effects of microbiome perturbations on cerebral Aβ amyloidosis and microglia phenotypes

ABSTRACT We demonstrated that an antibiotic cocktail (ABX)-perturbed gut microbiome is associated with reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque pathology and astrogliosis in the male amyloid precursor protein (APP)SWE/presenilin 1 (PS1)ΔE9 transgenic model of Aβ amyloidosis. We now show that in an independent, aggressive APPSWE/PS1L166P (APPPS1-21) mouse model of Aβ amyloidosis, an ABX-perturbed gut microbiome is associated […]


A complex human gut microbiome cultured in an anaerobic intestine-on-a-chip

ABSTRACT The diverse bacterial populations that comprise the commensal microbiome of the human intestine play a central role in health and disease. A method that sustains complex microbial communities in direct contact with living human intestinal cells and their overlying mucus layer in vitro would thus enable the investigation of host–microbiome interactions. Here, we show […]


Bacteroides fragilis polysaccharide A induces IL-10 secreting B and T cells that prevent viral encephalitis

ABSTRACT The gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis or its capsular polysaccharide A (PSA) can prevent various peripheral and CNS sterile inflammatory disorders. Fatal herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) results from immune pathology caused by uncontrolled invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. Here we assess the immunomodulatory potential of PSA in HSE by infecting PSA […]


Antibiotics-induced perturbations in gut microbial diversity influence metabolic phenotypes in a murine model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota play a key role in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. To study the relationship between them, antibiotics have been widely used to generate pseudo-germ-free rodents as control models. However, it is not clear whether antibiotics impact an animal’s metabolic phenotype. Therefore, the effect of antibiotics-induced gut microbial perturbations on […]


Supplementation with compound polysaccharides contributes to the development and metabolic activity of young rat intestinal microbiota

ABSTRACT Dietary intervention during early life has a significant impact on colonization of the gut microbiota. In addition, some polysaccharides have the potential to selectively stimulate the growth and metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. However, less is known about the effect of polysaccharides on the development of gut microbiota in […]


Gut microbiome-derived phenyl sulfate contributes to albuminuria in diabetic kidney disease

ABSTRACT Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of renal failure that urgently necessitates a breakthrough in disease management. Here we show using untargeted metabolomics that levels of phenyl sulfate, a gut microbiota-derived metabolite, increase with the progression of diabetes in rats overexpressing human uremic toxin transporter SLCO4C1 in the kidney, and are decreased in […]


Human gut microbiota transferred to germ-free NOD mice modulate the progression towards type 1 diabetes regardless of the pace of beta cell function loss in the donor

ABSTRACT Aims/hypothesis This study aimed to assess the ability of human gut microbiota to delay the onset of type 1 diabetes when transferred into germ-free NOD mice. Methods Two children with rapid and three children with slow beta cell function loss (as assessed by C-peptide AUC change in the mixed-meal tolerance tests performed 1 and […]


Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: probiotics reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats

ABSTRACT Early-life stress has pervasive, typically detrimental, effects on physical and mental health across the lifespan. In rats, maternal-separation stress results in premature expression of an adult-like profile of fear regulation that predisposes stressed rats to persistent fear, one of the hallmarks of clinical anxiety. Probiotic treatment attenuates the effects of maternal separation on fear […]


Early-life vancomycin treatment promotes airway inflammation and impairs microbiome homeostasis

ABSTRACT Several studies have reported that gut and lung microbiomes are involved in the process of asthma pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear how perinatal or early-life antibiotic intervention affect adult allergic airway inflammation. We assigned C57BL/6 mice randomly to four experimental groups: normal saline control (NS), ovalbumin (OVA), vancomycin pretreated NS (VAN-NS), and vancomycin pretreated […]


Antidepressants affect gut microbiota and Ruminococcus flavefaciens is able to abolish their effects on depressive-like behavior

ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the gut microbiota affects brain function and behavior, including depressive behavior. Antidepressants are the main drugs used for treatment of depression. We hypothesized that antidepressant treatment could modify gut microbiota which can partially mediate their antidepressant effects. Mice were chronically treated with one of five antidepressants (fluoxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, duloxetine […]


Early life stress induces type 2 diabetes-like features in ageing mice

ABSTRACT Early life stress is known to impair intestinal barrier through induction of intestinal hyperpermeability, low-grade inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis in young adult rodents. Interestingly, those features are also observed in metabolic disorders (obesity and type 2 diabetes) that appear with ageing. Based on the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases, our study […]


Gut microbiota from high-risk men who have sex with men drive immune activation in gnotobiotic mice and in vitro HIV infection

ABSTRACT Men who have sex with men (MSM) have differences in immune activation and gut microbiome composition compared with men who have sex with women (MSW), even in the absence of HIV infection. Gut microbiome differences associated with HIV itself when controlling for MSM, as assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, are relatively subtle. Understanding whether […]


Duodenal bacterial proteolytic activity determines sensitivity to dietary antigen through protease-activated receptor-2

ABSTRACT Microbe-host interactions are generally homeostatic, but when dysfunctional, they can incite food sensitivities and chronic diseases. Celiac disease (CeD) is a food sensitivity characterized by a breakdown of oral tolerance to gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that duodenal biopsies from patients with active […]


Adaptive Strategies of the Candidate Probiotic E. coli Nissle in the Mammalian Gut

SUMMARY Probiotics are living microorganisms that are increasingly used as gastrointestinal therapeutics by virtue of their innate or engineered genetic function. Unlike abiotic therapeutics, probiotics can replicate in their intended site, subjecting their genomes and therapeutic properties to natural selection. We exposed the candidate probiotic E. coli Nissle (EcN) to the mouse gastrointestinal tract over […]


Subchronic low-dose 2,4-D exposure changed plasma acylcarnitine levels and induced gut microbiome perturbations in mice

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota critically confers various health benefits, whereas environmental chemicals can affect its constitution and functionality thereby increasing disease risk. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the toxic effects of a wildly-used herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on the gut microbiome and host using an occupationally relevant dose. A mouse model was […]


Alteration of GLP-1/GPR43 expression and gastrointestinal motility in dysbiotic mice treated with vancomycin

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in various aspects of host physiology, including metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) motility and hormonal secretion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-associated dysbiosis on metabolism and GI motility in relation to colonic expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and G protein coupled receptor (GPR)43. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) […]


Potential Functions of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome Inhabiting the Length of the Rat Digest Tract

ABSTRACT The rat is an important model animal used frequently in biological researches exploring the correlations between gut microbiome and a wide array of diseases. In this study, we used an extended ancestral-state reconstruction algorithm to predict the functional capabilities of the rat gastrointestinal microbiome. Our results indicate an apparent tendency toward metabolic heterogeneity along […]






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