Complex interactions of circadian rhythms, eating behaviors, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and their potential impact on health

Abstract Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome.

Structure-Based Discovery of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cariogenic Virulence

Abstract Streptococcus mutans employs a key virulence factor, three glucosyltransferase (GtfBCD) enzymes to establish cariogenic biofilms.

The impact of age and gut microbiota on Th17 and Tfh cells in K/BxN autoimmune arthritis

Abstract Background Age is an important risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which often develops in middle age. However, how age-associated changes in immunity impact RA is poorly understood.

Human Gut-Derived Commensal Bacteria Suppress CNS Inflammatory and Demyelinating Disease

Highlights • A human gut bacterium has potential as a therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) • P. histicola can suppress disease in a preclinical animal model of MS • P. histicola suppresses disease by inducing CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

Heme-oxygenase-1 Production by Intestinal CX3CR1+ Macrophages Helps to Resolve Inflammation and Prevents Carcinogenesis

Abstract CX3CR1+ macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria contribute to gut homeostasis through the immunomodulatory interleukin IL10, but there is little knowledge on how these cells or the CX3CR1 receptor may affect colorectal carcinogenesis.

Changes in the Total Fecal Bacterial Population in Individual Horses Maintained on a Restricted Diet Over 6 Weeks

Twelve mature (aged 5–16 years) horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter) quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric.

The Effects of Captivity on the Mammalian Gut Microbiome

Abstract Recent studies increasingly note the effect of captivity or the built environment on the microbiome of humans and other animals.

Fenugreek galactomannan and citrus pectin improve several parameters associated with glucose metabolism, and modulate gut microbiota in mice

Highlights •For the first time galactomannan, derived from fenugreek and pectin, derived from citrus where shown to modulate gut microbiota and effect metabolic parameters and gene expression related to glucose metabolism.

The Gut Microbiome and Mental Health: Implications for Anxiety- and Trauma-Related Disorders.

Abstract Biological psychiatry research has long focused on the brain in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of anxiety- and trauma-related disorders.

Modulation of the tick gut milieu by a secreted tick protein favors Borrelia burgdorferi colonization

Abstract The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick Ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans.

Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

Abstract Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO).

Anti-diabetic Effects of Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313.1 through Promoting the Growth of Gut Butyrate-producing Bacteria in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

Sustaining a balanced intestinal microbial community is critical for maintaining intestinal health and preventing chronic inflammation.

Recent developments in understanding the role of the gut microbiota in brain health and disease

Abstract There is a growing appreciation of the role of the gut microbiota in all aspects of health and disease, including brain health.

The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through type I interferon

Eat more plants for influenza resilience Antibiotic treatment worsens influenza in mice, possibly because the concomitant loss of the microbiota interrupts the production of bioactive metabolites.

Gut Microbiota Modifies Olfactory-Guided Microbial Preferences and Foraging Decisions in Drosophila

Highlights •Drosophila display microbe-seeking behaviors as both larvae and adults •These microbial preferences are shaped by host-microbe association •Foraging decisions involve balancing cues from both microbes and nutrients

Lactobacillus reuteri induces gut intraepithelial CD4+CD8αα+ T cells

Abstract The small intestine contains CD4+CD8αα+ double-positive intraepithelial T lymphocytes (DP IELs), which originate from intestinal CD4+ T cells through downregulation of the transcription factor ThPOK and have regulatory functions.

Antibiotic-Induced Microbiota Dysbiosis Impairs Neuromuscular Function in Juvenile Mice

Abstract Background and Purpose Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the gastrointestinal system, including the enteric nervous system (ENS).

Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is required to alter the nasal microbiota in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

Abstract Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens.

Links between Natural Variation in the Microbiome and Host Fitness in Wild Mammals

Abstract Recent studies in model organisms have shown that compositional variation in the microbiome can affect a variety of host phenotypes including those related to digestion, development, immunity, and behavior.

Changes in the Gut Microbial Communities Following Addition of Walnuts to the Diet

Abstract Walnuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, phytochemicals and antioxidants making them unique compared to other foods. Consuming walnuts has been associated with health benefits including a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer.

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