Nitrated meat products are associated with mania in humans and altered behavior and brain gene expression in rats

ABSTRACT Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. We measured dietary exposures in a cohort of individuals with mania and other psychiatric disorders as well as in control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. We found that a history […]

Microbial Changes and Host Response in F344 Rat Colon Depending on Sex and Age Following a High-Fat Diet

Gut microbiota, an important component that affects host health, change rapidly and directly in response to altered diet composition. Recently, the role of diet–microbiome interaction on the development of colon cancer has been the focus of interest. Colon cancer occurs more frequently in an aged population, and in males. However, the effect of dietary changes […]

Replication Study: Intestinal inflammation targets cancer-inducing activity of the microbiota

ABSTRACT As part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology we published a Registered Report (Eaton et al., 2015) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper “Intestinal Inflammation Targets Cancer-Inducing Activity of the Microbiota” (Arthur et al., 2012). Here we report the results. We observed no impact on bacterial growth or […]

Chronic nonbacterial prostate inflammation in a rat model is associated with changes of gut microbiota that can be modified with a galactoglucomannan‐rich hemicellulose extract in diet

ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate dietary effects on the gut microbiota composition in a rat model of chronic non‐bacterial prostate inflammation. Materials and Methods Chronic nonbacterial prostate inflammation in the Wistar rat strain was induced with subcutaneous testosterone and 17β‐oestradiol hormone pellets for 18 weeks. Rats with placebo pellets served as healthy controls. Rats with chronic […]

Nod2 Deficiency in mice is Associated with Microbiota Variation Favouring the Expansion of mucosal CD4+ LAP+ Regulatory Cells

ABSTRACT Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-2 (NOD2) mutations are associated with an increased risk to develop Crohn’s Disease. In previous studies, we have shown that Nod2−/− mice manifest increased proportion of Lamina Propria (LP) CD4+ LAP+ Foxp3− regulatory cells, when compared with Nod2+/+ mice, while CD4+ Foxp3 + regulatory cells were not affected. Here, we investigated the Nod2 gut […]

The mammalian mycobiome: A complex system in a dynamic relationship with the host

ABSTRACT Mammalian barrier surfaces are densely populated by symbiont fungi in much the same way the former are colonized by symbiont bacteria. The fungal microbiota, otherwise known as the mycobiota, is increasingly recognized as a critical player in the maintenance of health and homeostasis of the host. Here we discuss the impact of the mycobiota […]

Subversion of Systemic Glucose Metabolism as a Mechanism to Support the Growth of Leukemia Cells

SUMMARY From an organismal perspective, cancer cell populations can be considered analogous to parasites that compete with the host for essential systemic resources such as glucose. Here, we employed leukemia models and human leukemia samples to document a form of adaptive homeostasis, where malignant cells alter systemic physiology through impairment of both host insulin sensitivity […]

Intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in DSS-induced colitis in mice: Impact on microRNAs expression and gut microbiota composition

ABSTRACT The beneficial effects exerted by probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are well known, although their exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, and only few studies have focused on their impact on selected miRNAs and the gut microbiota composition. Therefore, our aim was to correlate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the probiotic Saccharomyces […]

Sex Differences in Pulmonary Responses to Ozone in Mice: Role of the Microbiome

ABSTRACT We have previously reported that the mouse gut microbiome contributes to pulmonary responses to ozone, a common asthma trigger, and that short chain fatty acids, end products of bacterial fermentation, likely contribute to this role of the microbiome. A growing body of evidence indicates sex-related differences in gut microbiota and that these differences can […]

The effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced osteoarthritis

ABSTRACT Summary Objective Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, […]

The gut microbiota promotes hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation in mice

ABSTRACT Interactions between the gut microbial ecosystem and host lipid homeostasis are highly relevant to host physiology and metabolic diseases. We present a comprehensive multi-omics view of the effect of intestinal microbial colonization on hepatic lipid metabolism, integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, phosphoproteomic, and lipidomic analyses of liver and plasma samples from germfree and specific pathogen-free mice. […]

An experimental murine model to study periodontitis

ABSTRACT Periodontal disease (PD) is a common dental disease associated with the interaction between dysbiotic oral microbiota and host immunity. It is a prevalent disease, resulting in loss of gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone. PD is a major form of tooth loss in the adult population. Experimental animal models have enabled the […]

Characterization of the Functional Changes in Mouse Gut Microbiome Associated with Increased Akkermansia muciniphila Population Modulated by Dietary Black Raspberries

ABSTRACT Gut microbiome plays an essential role in host health through host–gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Desirable modulation of beneficial gut bacteria, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, can confer health benefits by altering microbiome-related metabolic profiles. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a black raspberry-rich diet to reshape the gut microbiome by […]

Post-Antibiotic Gut Mucosal Microbiome Reconstitution Is Impaired by Probiotics and Improved by Autologous FMT

SUMMARY Probiotics are widely prescribed for prevention of antibiotics-associated dysbiosis and related adverse effects. However, probiotic impact on post-antibiotic reconstitution of the gut mucosal host-microbiome niche remains elusive. We invasively examined the effects of multi-strain probiotics or autologous fecal microbiome transplantation (aFMT) on post-antibiotic reconstitution of the murine and human mucosal microbiome niche. Contrary to […]

Personalized Gut Mucosal Colonization Resistance to Empiric Probiotics Is Associated with Unique Host and Microbiome Features

SUMMARY Empiric probiotics are commonly consumed by healthy individuals as means of life quality improvement and disease prevention. However, evidence of probiotic gut mucosal colonization efficacy remains sparse and controversial. We metagenomically characterized the murine and human mucosal-associated gastrointestinal microbiome and found it to only partially correlate with stool microbiome. A sequential invasive multi-omics measurement […]

Intestinal Pathology and Gut Microbiota Alterations in a Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

ABSTRACT Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often have non-motor symptoms related to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as constipation and delayed gastric emptying, which manifest prior to the motor symptoms of PD. Increasing evidence indicates that changes in the composition of the gut microbiota may be related to the pathogenesis of PD. However, it is unclear […]

Effects of Natural Flavonoid-Isoorientin on Growth Performance and Gut Microbiota of Mice

ABSTRACT Isoorientin (ISO) is a natural flavonoid which is a 6-C-glucoside of luteolin and has been demonstrated to possess the multiple biological properties. In this study, the effects of ISO on the growth performance and gut microbiota of BALB/c mice were investigated. The results showed that ISO could promote food intake and body weight gain, […]

Differential effects of psychotropic drugs on microbiome composition and gastrointestinal function

Rationale Growing evidence supports a role for the microbiota in regulating gut-brain interactions and, thus, psychiatric disorders. Despite substantial scientific efforts to delineate the mechanism of action of psychotropic medications at a central nervous system (CNS) level, there remains a critical lack of understanding on how these drugs might affect the microbiota and gut physiology. […]

Microbial Sensing by Intestinal Myeloid Cells Controls Carcinogenesis and Epithelial Differentiation

Physiologic microbe-host interactions in the intestine require the maintenance of the microbiota in a luminal compartment through a complex interplay between epithelial and immune cells. However, the roles of mucosal myeloid cells in this process remain incompletely understood. In this study, we identified that decreased myeloid cell phagocytic activity promotes colon tumorigenesis. We show that […]

Butyrate and Dietary Soluble Fiber Improve Neuroinflammation Associated With Aging in Mice

Aging results in chronic systemic inflammation that can alter neuroinflammation of the brain. Specifically, microglia shift to a pro-inflammatory phenotype predisposing them to hyperactivation upon stimulation by peripheral immune signals. It is proposed that certain nutrients can delay brain aging by preventing or reversing microglial hyperactivation. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced primarily by […]

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