Compelling evidence demonstrates the crucial role of the commensal microbiota in host physiology and the detrimental effects of its perturbations following antibiotic treatment. However, the effects of commensal microbiota on intestinal mucosa antimicrobial molecules have not been elucidated systematically. Here, we investigate the impacts of antibiotic-induced depletion and subsequent restoration of the intestinal microbiota on the murine antimicrobial molecules in intestinal mucosa. Our results demonstrate that depletion of commensal microbiota leads to intestinal mucosa atrophy and reduction of antimicrobial molecules, including lysozyme, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ), and cryptdin 5 mRNA, whereas subsequent reconstitution of intestinal microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) rescues mucosa morphology and antimicrobials. Importantly, our study shows that down-regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) is associated with decreased antimicrobials, which might mediate the antibiotic-associated intestinal mucosa injury.
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