The profile of bile acids (BA) largely depends on the enzymatic activity of the microbiota, but this can be modulated by the dietary addition of biologically active compounds, e.g., polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dietary raspberry pomace as a rich source of biologically active compounds on microbial activity and the BA profile in the caecum of rats fed a high-fat diet. Wistar rats were fed the standard diet AIN-93, a high-fat diet or a modified high-fat diet enriched with 7% different types of processed raspberry pomaces produced by standard grinding and fine grinding, with or without seeds. Rats fed the high-fat diet for eight weeks showed some disorders in liver function and cecal BA, as manifested by an increased concentration of cholesterol, total BA in the liver and cholic, deoxycholic, and β-muricholic acids in the cecal digesta. In general, irrespective of the type of raspberry pomace, these dietary preparations decreased liver cholesterol, hepatic fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, cecal ammonia and favorable changed BA profile in the cecum. However, among all dietary pomaces, the finely ground preparation containing seeds had the greatest beneficial effect on the caecum by modulating bacterial activity and reducing the levels of secondary BA.
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