Murine Genetic Background has a Stronger Impact on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota than Maternal Inoculation or Exposure to Unlike Exogenous Microbiota

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, affected by both environmental factors and host genetics. Here we aim at uncovering the bacterial taxa whose gut persistence is controlled by host genetic variation. We used a murine model based on inbred lines BALB/c and C57BL/6J and their F1 reciprocal hybrids (♀C57BL/6J×♂BALB/c; ♀BALB/c×♂C57BL/6J). To guarantee genetic […]

Whole Body Vibration-Induced Omental Macrophage Polarization and Fecal Microbiome Modification in a Murine Model

ABSTRACT Human nutrient metabolism, developed millions of years ago, is anachronistic. Adaptive features that offered survival advantages are now great liabilities. The current dietary pattern, coupled with massively reduced physical activities, causes an epidemic of obesity and chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chronic inflammation is a major contributing factor to the […]

Baseline microbiota composition modulates antibiotic-mediated effects on the gut microbiota and host

ABSTRACT Background Normal mammalian development and homeostasis are dependent upon the gut microbiota. Antibiotics, essential for the treatment and prophylaxis of bacterial infections, can have collateral effects on the gut microbiota composition, which can in turn have far-reaching and potentially deleterious consequences for the host. However, the magnitude and duration of such collateral effects appear […]

Predominant Effect of Host Genetics on Levels of Lactobacillus johnsonii Bacteria in the Mouse Gut

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota is strongly associated with the well-being of the host. Its composition is affected by environmental factors, such as food and maternal inoculation, while the relative impact of the host’s genetics have been recently uncovered. Here, we studied the effect of the host genetic background on the composition of intestinal bacteria in […]

Laboratory mice born to wild mice have natural microbiota and model human immune responses

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Laboratory mice are a mainstay of biomedical research and have been instrumental for many important discoveries in the field of immunology. However, there are also major limitations, including conflicting results rooted in divergent microbiota among research facilities and the limited ability to predict the complex immune responses of humans. Recent studies have […]

T cell–mediated regulation of the microbiota protects against obesity

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT The gut microbial metagenome encodes a diverse array of functions that complement host genes involved in metabolism. In support of this idea, the gut microbiomes of obese individuals are characterized by reduced species richness and metabolic capacity. Thus, maintenance of the diversity and collective functional capacity of the microbiota is likely vital to […]

The gut microbiota influences skeletal muscle mass and function in mice

ABSTRACT The functional interactions between the gut microbiota and the host are important for host physiology, homeostasis, and sustained health. We compared the skeletal muscle of germ-free mice that lacked a gut microbiota to the skeletal muscle of pathogen-free mice that had a gut microbiota. Compared to pathogen-free mouse skeletal muscle, germ-free mouse skeletal muscle […]

Loss of gut barrier integrity triggers activation of islet-reactive T cells and autoimmune diabetes

Significance Functional loss of gut barrier integrity with subsequent increased antigen trafficking and occurrence of low-grade intestinal inflammation precede the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in patients and preclinical models, thus suggesting that these events are mechanistically linked to the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. However, a causal relationship between increased intestinal permeability and […]

The microbiota protects from viral-induced neurologic damage through microglia-intrinsic TLR signaling

ABSTRACT Symbiotic microbes impact the function and development of the central nervous system (CNS); however, little is known about the contribution of the microbiota during viral-induced neurologic damage. We identify that commensals aid in host defense following infection with a neurotropic virus through enhancing microglia function. Germfree mice or animals that receive antibiotics are unable […]

Potential roles of gut microbiome and metabolites in modulating ALS in mice

ABSTRACT Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically-driven neurodegenerative disorder, whose clinical manifestations may be influenced by unknown environmental factors. We demonstrate that ALS-prone SOD1-Tg mice feature a pre-symptomatic, vivarium-dependent dysbiosis and altered metabolite configuration, coupled with an exacerbated disease in germ-free or wide-spectrum antibiotic treatment conditions. We correlate 11 distinct commensals at our vivarium […]

Intestinal infection triggers Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms in Pink1−/− mice

ABSTRACT Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. Although the mechanisms that trigger the loss of dopaminergic neurons are unclear, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are thought to have key roles1,2. An early-onset form of Parkinson’s disease is associated with mutations in […]

Effects of microbiota-directed foods in gnotobiotic animals and undernourished children

Malnutrition and dietary repair Childhood malnutrition is accompanied by growth stunting and immaturity of the gut microbiota. Even after therapeutic intervention with standard commercial complementary foods, children may fail to thrive. Gehrig et al. and Raman et al. monitored metabolic parameters in healthy Bangladeshi children and those recovering from severe acute malnutrition. The authors investigated […]

Pomegranate peel extract alters the microbiome in mice and dysbiosis caused by Citrobacter rodentium infection

ABSTRACT Treatment of mice with a pomegranate peel extract (PPX) decreased the pathogenicity of Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) infections. Here, we investigate the effects of PPX on the microbiome of uninfected or Cr‐infected C3H/HeNCr mice by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mice were treated with water or PPX for 14 days, feces were collected, and then, the […]

Vendor‐Specific Microbiome Controls both Acute and Chronic Murine Lung Allograft Rejection by Altering CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Levels

ABSTRACT Despite standardized post‐operative care some lung transplant patients suffer multiple episodes of acute and chronic rejection while others avoid graft problems for reasons that are poorly understood. Using an established model of C57BL/10 to C57BL/6 minor antigen mismatched single lung transplantation we now demonstrate that the recipient microbiota contributes to variability in the alloimmune […]

Programmable bacteria induce durable tumor regression and systemic antitumor immunity

ABSTRACT Synthetic biology is driving a new era of medicine through the genetic programming of living cells1,2. This transformative approach allows for the creation of engineered systems that intelligently sense and respond to diverse environments, ultimately adding specificity and efficacy that extends beyond the capabilities of molecular-based therapeutics3,4,5,6. One particular area of focus has been […]

Enrichment of intestinal Lactobacillus by enhanced secretory IgA coating alters glucose homeostasis in P2rx7−/− mice

ABSTRACT Safety concerns arising from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops remains a controversial subject. We report here a faecal microbiota compositional analysis in Wistar rats from the GMO90 + study, which fed glyphosate-tolerant NK603 (+/− Roundup application) and Bt toxin MON810 GM maize for 6 months in comparison to their […]

Dietary fructose-induced gut dysbiosis promotes mouse hippocampal neuroinflammation: a benefit of short-chain fatty acids

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Western-style diets arouse neuroinflammation and impair emotional and cognitive behavior in humans and animals. Our previous study showed that a high-fructose diet caused the hippocampal neuroinflammatory response and neuronal loss in animals, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Here, alterations in the gut microbiota and intestinal epithelial barrier were investigated as the causes […]

Hypergravity disrupts murine intestinal microbiota

ABSTRACT During spaceflight, organisms are subjected to various physical stressors including modification of gravity (G) that, associated with lifestyle, could lead to impaired immunity, intestinal dysbiosis and thus potentially predispose astronauts to illness. Whether space travel affects microbiota homeostasis has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in intestinal […]

Environmental microcystin targets the microbiome and increases the risk of intestinal inflammatory pathology via NOX2 in underlying murine model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

ABSTRACT With increased climate change pressures likely to influence harmful algal blooms, exposure to microcystin, a known hepatotoxin and a byproduct of cyanobacterial blooms can be a risk factor for NAFLD associated comorbidities. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments we show that microcystin exposure in NAFLD mice cause rapid alteration of gut microbiome, […]

Neuroinflammation in Murine Cirrhosis is Dependent on the Gut Microbiome and is Attenuated by Fecal Transplant

ABSTRACT Cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with an altered gut‐liver‐brain axis. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) after antibiotics improves outcomes in HE, but the impact on brain function is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of colonization using human donors in germ‐free (GF) mice on the gut‐liver‐brain axis. GF […]

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