A high-fat/high-protein, Atkins-type diet exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in mice, whereas a high-carbohydrate diet protects

ABSTRACT Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is crucial for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health. VIP sustains GIT homeostasis through maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator that contributes to gut bacterial tolerance. Based on these biological functions by VIP, we hypothesized that its deficiency would alter gut microbial ecology. To this […]


Vasoactive intestinal peptide deficiency is associated with altered gut microbiota communities in male and female C57BL/6 mice

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is crucial for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health. VIP sustains GIT homeostasis through maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator that contributes to gut bacterial tolerance. Based on these biological functions by VIP, we hypothesized that its deficiency would alter gut microbial ecology. To this end, […]


Intake of Watermelon or Its Byproducts Alters Glucose Metabolism, the Microbiome, and Hepatic Proinflammatory Metabolites in High-Fat–Fed Male C57BL/6 J Mice

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Watermelon intake has demonstrated effects on blood pressure regulation along with other health benefits. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that intake of whole watermelon and products made from watermelon rind (WR) and watermelon skin (WS) would remediate metabolic complications in C57BL/6 J male mice fed a diet modeling a Western-style diet. METHODS Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 […]


Sodium oligomannate therapeutically remodels gut microbiota and suppresses gut bacterial amino acids-shaped neuroinflammation to inhibit Alzheimer’s disease progression

ABSTRACT Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the association between gut dysbiosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression, yet the role of gut microbiota in AD pathogenesis remains obscure. Herein, we provide a potential mechanistic link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and neuroinflammation in AD progression. Using AD mouse models, we discovered that, during AD progression, the alteration […]


Microbial metabolites control the thymic development of mucosal-associated invariant T cells

ABSTRACT How the microbiota modulate immune functions remains poorly understood. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are implicated in mucosal homeostasis and absent in germ-free mice. Here, we show that commensal bacteria govern murine MAIT intrathymic development, as MAIT cells did not recirculate to the thymus. MAIT development required RibD expression in bacteria, indicating that production […]


The microbiota regulate neuronal function and fear extinction learning

ABSTRACT Multicellular organisms have co-evolved with complex consortia of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, collectively referred to as the microbiota. In mammals, changes in the composition of the microbiota can influence many physiologic processes (including development, metabolism and immune cell function) and are associated with susceptibility to multiple diseases. Alterations in the microbiota can also […]


The Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities and Meta-Analysis of Their Occurrence during Diseases of Small–Large Intestine Axis

ABSTRACT Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often isolated from animals and people with ulcerative colitis and can be involved in the IBD development in the gut–intestine axis. The background of the research consisted of obtaining mixed cultures of SRB communities from healthy mice and mice with colitis, finding variation in the distribution of their morphology, to […]


Positive effect of an electrolyzed reduced water on gut permeability, fecal microbiota and liver in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

ABSTRACT There is growing awareness within the scientific community of the strong connection between the inflammation in the intestine and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In previous studies we developed a PD animal model exposing pup rats to permethrin (PERM) pesticide. Here, we intended to explore whether in our animal model there were changes […]


Rat H1 parvovirus infection leads to alterations in gut microbiota

ABSTRACT H1 parvovirus (H1PV) infection in rats is of concern to the research community as infection may compromise rodent-based experiments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of H1PV infection on rat gut microbiota. Inbred Wistar rats were infected with H1PV by routine gavage and clinical signs were recorded. Gross anatomical and […]


Depletion of dietary aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands alters microbiota composition and function

ABSTRACT The intestinal microbiota is critical for maintaining homeostasis. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the microbial community, contributes to the susceptibility of several diseases. Many factors are known to influence gut microbial composition, including diet. We have previously shown that fecal immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels are decreased in mice fed a diet free of aryl hydrocarbon […]


Changes in Microbiota and Development of Nonspecific Inflammation of Genitals in Female C57Bl/6 Mice after Aerosol Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

SUMMARY Infectious process even at the initial stage after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced rapid changes in vaginal microbiota in mice. Rapid decrease in both the quantity and diversity of microbiota was noted, and then, partial recovery of normal flora was observed. Changes in vaginal microbiota was detected as soon as in 3-7 days […]


Understanding artificial mouse-microbiome heterogeneity and six actionable themes to increase study power

ABSTRACT The negative effects of data clustering due to (intra-class/spatial) correlations are well-known in statistics to interfere with interpretation and study power. Therefore, it is unclear why housing many laboratory mice (≥4), instead of one-or-two per cage, with the improper use/reporting of clustered-data statistics, abound in the literature. Among other sources of ‘artificial’ confounding, including […]


Polymorphic Immune Mechanisms Regulate Commensal Repertoire

SUMMARY Environmental influences (infections and diet) strongly affect a host’s microbiota. However, host genetics may influence commensal communities, as suggested by the greater similarity between the microbiomes of identical twins compared to non-identical twins. Variability of human genomes and microbiomes complicates the understanding of polymorphic mechanisms regulating the commensal communities. Whereas animal studies allow genetic […]


Bacterial variability in the mammalian gut captured by a single-cell synthetic oscillator

ABSTRACT Synthetic gene oscillators have the potential to control timed functions and periodic gene expression in engineered cells. Such oscillators have been refined in bacteria in vitro, however, these systems have lacked the robustness and precision necessary for applications in complex in vivo environments, such as the mammalian gut. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of […]


The fungal mycobiome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via activation of MBL

ABSTRACT Bacterial dysbiosis accompanies carcinogenesis in malignancies such as colon and liver cancer, and has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)1. However, the mycobiome has not been clearly implicated in tumorigenesis. Here we show that fungi migrate from the gut lumen to the pancreas, and that this is implicated in […]


Microbiota of MR1 deficient mice confer resistance against Clostridium difficile infection

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to […]


Effects from diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity can be ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation: A multiomics approach

ABSTRACT Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; […]


Metformin Alters the Duodenal Microbiome and Decreases the Incidence of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Promoted by Diet-induced Obesity

ABSTRACT Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma’s (PDAC) growing incidence has been linked to the rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous work we have shown that metformin can prevent the increased incidence of PDAC in a KrasG12D mouse model subjected to a diet high in fat and calories (HFCD). One potential way that […]


MHC Class II Antigen Presentation by the Intestinal Epithelium Initiates Graft-versus-Host Disease and Is Influenced by the Microbiota

SUMMARY Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the principal determinant of lethality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we examined the mechanisms that initiate GVHD, including the relevant antigen-presenting cells. MHC class II was expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) within the ileum at steady state but was absent from the […]


Saponins from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. regulates gut microbiota and its metabolites during alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis in rats

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota and their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Total Clematis triterpenoid saponins (CTSs) prepared from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. possess therapeutic benefits for arthritic diseases. However, the poor pharmacokinetic properties of CTSs have obstructed the translation of these natural agents to drugs. Here, we examined […]






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