Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Clostridium difficile Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health threat worldwide. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with enhanced susceptibility to and severity of CDI; however, the mechanisms driving this phenomenon have not been elucidated. NSAIDs alter prostaglandin (PG) metabolism by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Here, we found that treatment with […]

Mechanisms Underlying Microbial-Mediated Changes in Social Behavior in Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder

SUMMARY Currently, there are no medications that effectively treat the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We recently found that the bacterial species Lactobacillus (L.) reuteri reverses social deficits in maternal high-fat-diet offspring. However, whether the effect of L. reuteri on social behavior is generalizable to other ASD models and its mechanism(s) of action […]

Insights into a Possible Mechanism Underlying the Connection of Carbendazim-Induced Lipid Metabolism Disorder and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Mice

ABSTRACT Carbendazim (CBZ), a systemic, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide, is widely used to control fungal diseases and has been regarded as an endocrine disruptor that causes mammalian toxicity in different target organs. Here, we discovered that chronic administrations of CBZ at 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks not only changed the composition of gut […]

General Anesthesia Alters the Diversity and Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Mice

ABSTRACT Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been shown to result in altered immune responses and increased susceptibility to infection; as such, the state of the intestinal microbiome may have profound implications in the perioperative setting. In this first-in-class study, we used 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and analysis in a mouse model of general anesthesia […]

Cesarean Section Induces Microbiota-Regulated Immune Disturbances in C57BL/6 Mice

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have shown that children born by cesarean section (CS) are at higher risk of developing chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that a skewed gut microbial colonization process early in life and altered priming of the immune system are causative. The aim of this study was to clarify whether impaired […]

On the role of corticosterone in behavioral disorders, microbiota composition alteration and neuroimmune response in adult male mice subjected to maternal separation stress

ABSTRACT Experiencing psychosocial adversities in early life such as maternal seperation (MS) increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Immune-inflammatory responses have imperative roles in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. MS relatively changes the composition of intestinal microbiota leading to an overactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and subsequently increases the corticosterone level. In this study, […]

Impact of commensal flora on periodontal immune response to lipopolysaccharide

ABSTRACT 1 Background Commensal flora are involved in the appropriate development of the mature immune system. However, it is unclear how commensal flora contribute to immune responses against periodontal pathogens, including the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of immune responses after topical application of LPS in […]

A prostate derived commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strain prevents and ameliorates induction of chronic prostatitis by UPEC infection

ABSTRACT Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common syndrome with limited therapies and an unknown etiology. Previously, our laboratory has defined a potential role for pathogenic infection in disease onset. Intra-urethral infection with a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain isolated from a CP/CPPS patient, CP1, induces prostatic inflammation and tactile allodynia in mice. We […]

Generation of orthotopically functional salivary gland from embryonic stem cells

ABSTRACT Organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells are used in the development of organ replacement regenerative therapy by recapitulating the process of organogenesis. These processes are strictly regulated by morphogen signalling and transcriptional networks. However, the precise transcription factors involved in the organogenesis of exocrine glands, including salivary glands, remain unknown. Here, we identify a […]

The Microbial Metabolite Butyrate Stimulates Bone Formation via T Regulatory Cell-Mediated Regulation of WNT10B Expression

SUMMARY Nutritional supplementation with probiotics can prevent pathologic bone loss. Here we examined the impact of supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone homeostasis in eugonadic young mice. Micro-computed tomography revealed that LGG increased trabecular bone volume in mice, which was due to increased bone formation. Butyrate produced in the gut following LGG ingestion, […]

Toxoplasma gondii infection triggers chronic cachexia and sustained commensal dysbiosis in mice

ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a predation-mediated transmission cycle between rodents and felines. Intermediate hosts acquire Toxoplasma by eating parasite cysts which invade the small intestine, disseminate systemically and finally establish host life-long chronic infection in brain and muscles. Here we show that Toxoplasma infection can trigger a severe form of sustained […]

Enteric infection coupled with chronic Notch pathway inhibition alters colonic mucus composition leading to dysbiosis, barrier disruption and colitis

ABSTRACT Intestinal mucus layer disruption and gut microflora modification in conjunction with tight junction (TJ) changes can increase colonic permeability that allows bacterial dissemination and intestinal and systemic disease. We showed previously that Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis is regulated by a functional cross-talk between the Notch and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. In the […]

Interactions between Roseburia intestinalis and diet modulate atherogenesis in a murine model

ABSTRACT Humans with metabolic and inflammatory diseases frequently harbour lower levels of butyrate-producing bacteria in their gut. However, it is not known whether variation in the levels of these organisms is causally linked with disease development and whether diet modifies the impact of these bacteria on health. Here we show that a prominent gut-associated butyrate-producing […]

Effects of water decontamination methods and bedding material on the gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Rodent models are invaluable to understanding health and disease in many areas of biomedical research. Unfortunately, many models suffer from lack of phenotype reproducibility. Our laboratory has shown that differences in gut microbiota (GM) can modulate phenotypes of models of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. We and others have also shown that a […]

The impact of exercise training and resveratrol supplementation on gut microbiota composition in high‐fat diet fed mice

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training and dietary supplementation of resveratrol on the composition of gut microbiota and to test the hypothesis that exercise training and resveratrol can prevent high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced changes in the gut microbiota. Mice fed a HFD supplemented with resveratrol (4 g/kg food) […]

Transmission modes of the mammalian gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Mammals house a diversity of bacteria that affect health in various ways, but the routes by which bacterial lineages are transmitted between hosts remain poorly understood. We experimentally determined microbiota transmission modes by deriving 17 inbred mouse lines from two wild populations and monitoring their gut microbiotas for up to 11 host generations. Individual- […]

Non-invasive continuous real-time in vivo analysis of microbial hydrogen production shows adaptation to fermentable carbohydrates in mice

ABSTRACT Real time in vivo methods are needed to better understand the interplay between diet and the gastrointestinal microbiota. Therefore, a rodent indirect calorimetry system was equipped with hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) sensors. H2 production was readily detected in C57BL/6J mice and followed a circadian rhythm. H2 production was increased within 12 hours after […]

Long-term intake of Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 prevents age-related chronic inflammation and retinal cell loss in physiologically aged mice.

ABSTRACT Age-related chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the incidence and prevalence of age-related diseases, including infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. We previously reported that a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110, activated macrophages and suppressed inflammation in mice and humans. In this study, we investigated whether long-term intake of heat-killed L. paracasei KW3110 […]

Dysregulated Microbial Fermentation of Soluble Fiber Induces Cholestatic Liver Cancer

SUMMARY Dietary soluble fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are considered broadly health-promoting. Accordingly, consumption of such fibers ameliorates metabolic syndrome. However, incorporating soluble fiber inulin, but not insoluble fiber, into a compositionally defined diet, induced icteric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Such HCC was microbiota-dependent and observed in multiple strains […]

Nitrated meat products are associated with mania in humans and altered behavior and brain gene expression in rats

ABSTRACT Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. We measured dietary exposures in a cohort of individuals with mania and other psychiatric disorders as well as in control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. We found that a history […]

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