Microbiota-targeted maternal antibodies protect neonates from enteric infection

Abstract Although maternal antibodies protect newborn babies from infection, little is known about how protective antibodies are induced without prior pathogen exposure. Here we show that neonatal mice that lack the capacity to produce IgG are protected from infection with the enteric pathogen enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by maternal natural IgG antibodies against the maternal microbiota […]


Bile acid metabolites control TH17 and Treg cell differentiation

Abstract Bile acids are abundant in the mammalian gut, where they undergo bacteria-mediated transformation to generate a large pool of bioactive molecules. Although bile acids are known to affect host metabolism, cancer progression and innate immunity, it is unknown whether they affect adaptive immune cells such as T helper cells that express IL-17a (TH17 cells) […]


Rapid and Concomitant Gut Microbiota and Endocannabinoidome Response to Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice

Abstract The intestinal microbiota and the expanded endocannabinoid (eCB) system, or endocannabinoidome (eCBome), have both been implicated in diet-induced obesity and dysmetabolism. These systems were recently suggested to interact during the development of obesity. We aimed at identifying the potential interactions between gut microbiota composition and the eCBome during the establishment of diet-induced obesity and […]


Depletion of microbiome-derived molecules in the host using Clostridium genetics

Clostridial metabolite production The clostridia are Firmicute bacterial commensals commonly found in the mammalian gut. Clostridia produce a range of metabolites that diffuse into the host’s circulation and have been difficult to manipulate genetically, but Guo et al. successfully developed a CRISPR-Cas9 deletion system in Clostridium sporogenes (see the Perspective by Henke and Clardy). The […]


Amelioration of metabolic syndrome by metformin associates with reduced indices of low-grade inflammation independently of the gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Metformin beneficially impacts several aspects of metabolic syndrome including dysglycemia, obesity, and liver dysfunction, thus making it a widely used frontline treatment for early-stage type 2 diabetes, which is associated with these disorders. Several mechanisms of action for metformin have been proposed, including that it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, possibly as a result […]


Oral Administration of miR-30d from Feces of MS Patients Suppresses MS-like Symptoms in Mice by Expanding Akkermansia muciniphila

Summary Fecal transfer from healthy donors is being explored as a microbiome modality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to affect the microbiome. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been shown to have an altered gut microbiome. Here, we unexpectedly found that transfer of feces harvested at peak disease from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of […]


Absorptive transport of amino acids by the rat colon

Abstract The capacity of the colon to absorb microbially-produced amino acids (AAs) and the underlying mechanisms of AA transport are incompletely defined. We measured the profile of 16 fecal AAs along the rat ceco-colonic axis and compared unidirectional absorptive AA fluxes across mucosal tissues isolated from the rat jejunum, cecum, and proximal colon using an […]


Strain specific stress-modulating effects of candidate probiotics: a systematic screening in a mouse model of chronic restraint stress

Background Changes in the gut microbiota have been implicated in mood and cognition. In rodents, supplementation with certain bacteria have been shown to alleviate adverse effects of stress on gut microbiota composition and behaviour, but little is known of how the performance of different strains compare to each other. We took a systematic approach to […]


Colorectal cancer-associated microbiota contributes to oncogenic epigenetic signatures

Significance This study advances our appreciation and understanding of the role of colon dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. In a human pilot study of 266 individuals, greater epigenomic (methylation) DNA alterations correlated with CRC and microbiota composition. Beyond this correlative evidence, when germ-free mice received fresh feces from CRC patients and their healthy […]


The microbiota regulates murine inflammatory responses to toxin-induced CNS demyelination but has minimal impact on remyelination

Significance People with multiple sclerosis have a microbiota distinct from healthy controls, and there is growing interest in how these differences might contribute to the onset and progression of CNS autoimmunity. However, the impact that the microbiota may also have on the endogenous regeneration of myelin—remyelination—has not yet been explored. Here we show that inflammatory […]


Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice

Hidden benefits of a fecal transplant Our gut microbiota evolves as we age, yet its effects on host physiology are not clearly understood. Kundu et al. now attempt to elucidate these effects by transplanting the gut microbiota of either young or old donor mice into young germ-free recipient mice. They report that young germ-free mice […]


A high-fat/high-protein, Atkins-type diet exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in mice, whereas a high-carbohydrate diet protects

ABSTRACT Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is crucial for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health. VIP sustains GIT homeostasis through maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator that contributes to gut bacterial tolerance. Based on these biological functions by VIP, we hypothesized that its deficiency would alter gut microbial ecology. To this […]


Vasoactive intestinal peptide deficiency is associated with altered gut microbiota communities in male and female C57BL/6 mice

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is crucial for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) health. VIP sustains GIT homeostasis through maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and acts as a potent anti-inflammatory mediator that contributes to gut bacterial tolerance. Based on these biological functions by VIP, we hypothesized that its deficiency would alter gut microbial ecology. To this end, […]


Intake of Watermelon or Its Byproducts Alters Glucose Metabolism, the Microbiome, and Hepatic Proinflammatory Metabolites in High-Fat–Fed Male C57BL/6 J Mice

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Watermelon intake has demonstrated effects on blood pressure regulation along with other health benefits. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that intake of whole watermelon and products made from watermelon rind (WR) and watermelon skin (WS) would remediate metabolic complications in C57BL/6 J male mice fed a diet modeling a Western-style diet. METHODS Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 […]


Sodium oligomannate therapeutically remodels gut microbiota and suppresses gut bacterial amino acids-shaped neuroinflammation to inhibit Alzheimer’s disease progression

ABSTRACT Recently, increasing evidence has suggested the association between gut dysbiosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression, yet the role of gut microbiota in AD pathogenesis remains obscure. Herein, we provide a potential mechanistic link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and neuroinflammation in AD progression. Using AD mouse models, we discovered that, during AD progression, the alteration […]


Microbial metabolites control the thymic development of mucosal-associated invariant T cells

ABSTRACT How the microbiota modulate immune functions remains poorly understood. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are implicated in mucosal homeostasis and absent in germ-free mice. Here, we show that commensal bacteria govern murine MAIT intrathymic development, as MAIT cells did not recirculate to the thymus. MAIT development required RibD expression in bacteria, indicating that production […]


The microbiota regulate neuronal function and fear extinction learning

ABSTRACT Multicellular organisms have co-evolved with complex consortia of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, collectively referred to as the microbiota. In mammals, changes in the composition of the microbiota can influence many physiologic processes (including development, metabolism and immune cell function) and are associated with susceptibility to multiple diseases. Alterations in the microbiota can also […]


The Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities and Meta-Analysis of Their Occurrence during Diseases of Small–Large Intestine Axis

ABSTRACT Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often isolated from animals and people with ulcerative colitis and can be involved in the IBD development in the gut–intestine axis. The background of the research consisted of obtaining mixed cultures of SRB communities from healthy mice and mice with colitis, finding variation in the distribution of their morphology, to […]


Positive effect of an electrolyzed reduced water on gut permeability, fecal microbiota and liver in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

ABSTRACT There is growing awareness within the scientific community of the strong connection between the inflammation in the intestine and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In previous studies we developed a PD animal model exposing pup rats to permethrin (PERM) pesticide. Here, we intended to explore whether in our animal model there were changes […]


Rat H1 parvovirus infection leads to alterations in gut microbiota

ABSTRACT H1 parvovirus (H1PV) infection in rats is of concern to the research community as infection may compromise rodent-based experiments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of H1PV infection on rat gut microbiota. Inbred Wistar rats were infected with H1PV by routine gavage and clinical signs were recorded. Gross anatomical and […]






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