Bifidobacterium longum counters the effects of obesity: Partial successful translation from rodent to human

Abstract Background The human gut microbiota has emerged as a key factor in the development of obesity. Certain probiotic strains have shown anti-obesity effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bifidobacterium longum APC1472 has anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and whether B. longum APC1472 supplementation reduces body-mass index (BMI) […]


Reducing versus Embracing Variation as Strategies for Reproducibility: The Microbiome of Laboratory Mice

Abstract Irreproducibility is a well-recognized problem in biomedical animal experimentation. Phenotypic variation in animal models is one of the many challenging causes of irreproducibility. How to deal with phenotypic variation in experimental designs is a topic of debate. Both reducing and embracing variation are highlighted as strategies for reproducibility. In this theoretical review, we use […]


Acute and long-term effects of antibiotics commonly used in laboratory animal medicine on the fecal microbiota

Abstract Biomedical research relies on the use of animal models, and the animals used in those models receive medical care, including antibiotics for brief periods of time to treat conditions such as dermatitis, fight wounds, and suspected bacterial pathogens of unknown etiology. As many mouse model phenotypes are sensitive to changes in the gut microbiota, […]


Gut microbiome alterations induced by tributyltin exposure are associated with increased body weight, impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis and endocrine disruption in mice

Abstract Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin compound once widely used in agriculture and industry, has been reported to induce obesity and endocrine disruption. Gut microbiota has a strong connection with the host’s physiology. Nevertheless, the influences of TBT exposure on gut microbiota and whether TBT-influenced gut microbiota is related to TBT-induced toxicity remain unclear. To fill […]


Faecal microbiota transplant from aged donor mice affects spatial learning and memory via modulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity- and neurotransmission-related proteins in young recipients

Abstract Background The gut-brain axis and the intestinal microbiota are emerging as key players in health and disease. Shifts in intestinal microbiota composition affect a variety of systems; however, evidence of their direct impact on cognitive functions is still lacking. We tested whether faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from aged donor mice into young adult recipients […]


The maternal microbiome modulates fetal neurodevelopment in mice

Abstract ‘Dysbiosis’ of the maternal gut microbiome, in response to challenges such as infection1, altered diet2 and stress3 during pregnancy, has been increasingly associated with abnormalities in brain function and behaviour of the offspring4. However, it is unclear whether the maternal gut microbiome influences neurodevelopment during critical prenatal periods and in the absence of environmental […]


The gut microbiota may be a novel pathogenic mechanism in loosening of orthopedic implants in rats

Abstract Particles released from implants cause inflammatory bone loss, which is a key factor in aseptic loosening, the most common reason for joint replacement failure. With the anticipated increased incidence of total joint replacement in the next decade, implant failure will continue to burden patients. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important factor […]


Obesity Worsens Gulf War Illness Symptom Persistence Pathology by Linking Altered Gut Microbiome Species to Long-Term Gastrointestinal, Hepatic, and Neuronal Inflammation in a Mouse Model

Abstract Persistence of Gulf War illness (GWI) pathology among deployed veterans is a clinical challenge even after almost three decades. Recent studies show a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic disturbances among Gulf War veterans primarily due to the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic fatigue, sedentary lifestyle, and consumption of a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. […]


In vivo antiviral host transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 by viral load, sex, and age

Abstract Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal […]


Microbial metabolite protects against infection

Abstract Intestinal dysbiosis is associated with an increased susceptibility to disseminated bacterial infections and sepsis. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of the liver that reside within the hepatic vasculature, protect the organ from pathogens and are the first liver cells to come into contact with the blood that is delivered directly to this organ from […]


Gut microorganisms act together to exacerbate inflammation in spinal cords

Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microorganisms have a pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases, including in multiple sclerosis1. Studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)2,3, as well as human studies4,5,6, have implicated gut microorganisms in the development or severity of multiple sclerosis. However, it remains unclear how gut microorganisms act on […]


Glycan cross-feeding supports mutualism between Fusobacterium and the vaginal microbiota

Abstract Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), an imbalance of the vaginal microbiome, are more likely to be colonized by potential pathogens such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, a bacterium linked with intrauterine infection and preterm birth. However, the conditions and mechanisms supporting pathogen colonization during vaginal dysbiosis remain obscure. We demonstrate that sialidase activity, a diagnostic feature […]


Microbiome-derived inosine modulates response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy

Abstract Several species of intestinal bacteria have been associated with enhanced efficacy of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms by which the microbiome enhances anti-tumor immunity is unclear. Here, we isolated three bacterial species, including Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Lactobacillus johnsonii and Olsenella species, that significantly enhanced efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in four mouse models […]


Lung and gut microbiota are altered by hyperoxia and contribute to oxygen-induced lung injury in mice

Abstract Inhaled oxygen, although commonly administered to patients with respiratory disease, causes severe lung injury in animals and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in humans. The relationship between hyperoxia, lung and gut microbiota, and lung injury is unknown. Here, we show that hyperoxia conferred a selective relative growth advantage on oxygen-tolerant respiratory microbial species […]


Microbiota-derived metabolite promotes HDAC3 activity in the gut

Abstract The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their beneficial commensal microbes has led to development of a symbiotic host-microbiota relationship. Epigenetic machinery permits mammalian cells to integrate environmental signals, however, how these pathways are finely tuned by diverse cues from commensal bacteria is not well understood. Here, we reveal a highly selective pathway through which […]


Colonization of Germ-free Transgenic Mice with Genotyped Helicobacter pylori Strains from a Case-Control Study of Gastric Cancer Reveals a Correlation between Host Responses and HsdS Components of Type I Restriction-Modification Systems

Abstract Helicobacter pylori infects the stomachs of half of all humans. It has a relatively benign relationship with most hosts but produces severe pathology, including gastric cancer, in others. Identifying the relative contributions of host, microbial, and environmental factors to the outcome of infection has been challenging. Here we describe one approach for identifying microbial […]


Neonatal Exposure to Commensal-Bacteria-Derived Antigens Directs Polysaccharide-Specific B-1 B Cell Repertoire Development

Summary B-1 B cells derive from a developmental program distinct from that of conventional B cells, through B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent positive selection of fetally derived precursors. Here, we used direct labeling of B cells reactive with the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-containing Lancefield group A carbohydrate of Streptococcus pyogenes to study the effects of bacterial antigens on […]


Microbiota modulate sympathetic neurons via a gut–brain circuit

Abstract Connections between the gut and brain monitor the intestinal tissue and its microbial and dietary content1, regulating both physiological intestinal functions such as nutrient absorption and motility2,3, and brain-wired feeding behaviour2. It is therefore plausible that circuits exist to detect gut microorganisms and relay this information to areas of the central nervous system that, […]


Developing standards for the microbiome field

Abstract Background Effective standardisation of methodologies to analyse the microbiome is essential to the entire microbiome community. Despite the microbiome field being established for over a decade, there are no accredited or certified reference materials available to the wider community. In this study, we describe the development of the first reference reagents produced by the […]


A Humanized Diet Profile May Facilitate Colonization and Immune Stimulation in Human Microbiota-Colonized Mice

Background: In spite of the importance of the use of gnotobiotic mice for human fecal transfer, colonization efficiency and immune stimulation after human microbiota inoculation in mice are poorly studied compared to mouse microbiota inoculation. We tested the colonization efficiency and immune responses in mice bred for one additional generation after inoculating the parent generation […]






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