Positive effect of an electrolyzed reduced water on gut permeability, fecal microbiota and liver in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease

ABSTRACT There is growing awareness within the scientific community of the strong connection between the inflammation in the intestine and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In previous studies we developed a PD animal model exposing pup rats to permethrin (PERM) pesticide. Here, we intended to explore whether in our animal model there were changes […]


Rat H1 parvovirus infection leads to alterations in gut microbiota

ABSTRACT H1 parvovirus (H1PV) infection in rats is of concern to the research community as infection may compromise rodent-based experiments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of H1PV infection on rat gut microbiota. Inbred Wistar rats were infected with H1PV by routine gavage and clinical signs were recorded. Gross anatomical and […]


Depletion of dietary aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands alters microbiota composition and function

ABSTRACT The intestinal microbiota is critical for maintaining homeostasis. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the microbial community, contributes to the susceptibility of several diseases. Many factors are known to influence gut microbial composition, including diet. We have previously shown that fecal immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels are decreased in mice fed a diet free of aryl hydrocarbon […]


Changes in Microbiota and Development of Nonspecific Inflammation of Genitals in Female C57Bl/6 Mice after Aerosol Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

SUMMARY Infectious process even at the initial stage after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced rapid changes in vaginal microbiota in mice. Rapid decrease in both the quantity and diversity of microbiota was noted, and then, partial recovery of normal flora was observed. Changes in vaginal microbiota was detected as soon as in 3-7 days […]


Understanding artificial mouse-microbiome heterogeneity and six actionable themes to increase study power

ABSTRACT The negative effects of data clustering due to (intra-class/spatial) correlations are well-known in statistics to interfere with interpretation and study power. Therefore, it is unclear why housing many laboratory mice (≥4), instead of one-or-two per cage, with the improper use/reporting of clustered-data statistics, abound in the literature. Among other sources of ‘artificial’ confounding, including […]


Polymorphic Immune Mechanisms Regulate Commensal Repertoire

SUMMARY Environmental influences (infections and diet) strongly affect a host’s microbiota. However, host genetics may influence commensal communities, as suggested by the greater similarity between the microbiomes of identical twins compared to non-identical twins. Variability of human genomes and microbiomes complicates the understanding of polymorphic mechanisms regulating the commensal communities. Whereas animal studies allow genetic […]


Bacterial variability in the mammalian gut captured by a single-cell synthetic oscillator

ABSTRACT Synthetic gene oscillators have the potential to control timed functions and periodic gene expression in engineered cells. Such oscillators have been refined in bacteria in vitro, however, these systems have lacked the robustness and precision necessary for applications in complex in vivo environments, such as the mammalian gut. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of […]


The fungal mycobiome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via activation of MBL

ABSTRACT Bacterial dysbiosis accompanies carcinogenesis in malignancies such as colon and liver cancer, and has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)1. However, the mycobiome has not been clearly implicated in tumorigenesis. Here we show that fungi migrate from the gut lumen to the pancreas, and that this is implicated in […]


Microbiota of MR1 deficient mice confer resistance against Clostridium difficile infection

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to […]


Effects from diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity can be ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation: A multiomics approach

ABSTRACT Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; […]


Metformin Alters the Duodenal Microbiome and Decreases the Incidence of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Promoted by Diet-induced Obesity

ABSTRACT Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma’s (PDAC) growing incidence has been linked to the rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous work we have shown that metformin can prevent the increased incidence of PDAC in a KrasG12D mouse model subjected to a diet high in fat and calories (HFCD). One potential way that […]


MHC Class II Antigen Presentation by the Intestinal Epithelium Initiates Graft-versus-Host Disease and Is Influenced by the Microbiota

SUMMARY Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the principal determinant of lethality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we examined the mechanisms that initiate GVHD, including the relevant antigen-presenting cells. MHC class II was expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) within the ileum at steady state but was absent from the […]


Saponins from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. regulates gut microbiota and its metabolites during alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis in rats

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota and their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Total Clematis triterpenoid saponins (CTSs) prepared from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. possess therapeutic benefits for arthritic diseases. However, the poor pharmacokinetic properties of CTSs have obstructed the translation of these natural agents to drugs. Here, we examined […]


The interaction between the gut Microbiota and herbal medicines

ABSTRACT As technologies used to study the gut microbiota have improved, the relationship between the gut microbiota and health has become increasingly obvious. Herbal medicines have been used for thousands of years, and are known to be “simple, convenient, cheap, and effective”. However, due to many factors, such as their complex composition, unclear active compounds, […]


Muscle strength is increased in mice that are colonized with microbiota from high-functioning older adults

ABSTRACT Evidence in support of a gut-muscle axis has been reported in rodents, but studies in older adult humans are limited. Accordingly, the primary goals of the present study were to compare gut microbiome composition in older adults that differed in terms of the percentage of whole body lean mass and physical functioning (high-functioning, HF, […]


Effects of theabrownin on serum metabolite and gut microbiome in rats with high-sugar diet

ABSTRACT Evidence has accumulated that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor contributing to obesity by altering host energy harvest and storage. We performed a high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing association study and serum metabolomics profiling in rat with high-sugar diet. Our studies revealed that high sugar diet reduced the diversity of cecal microorganisms, while […]


Antibiotics-Driven Gut Microbiome Perturbation Alters Immunity to Vaccines in Humans

SUMMARY Emerging evidence indicates a central role for the microbiome in immunity. However, causal evidence in humans is sparse. Here, we administered broad-spectrum antibiotics to healthy adults prior and subsequent to seasonal influenza vaccination. Despite a 10,000-fold reduction in gut bacterial load and long-lasting diminution in bacterial diversity, antibody responses were not significantly affected. However, […]


Maternal microbiota in pregnancy and early life

A microbial bond is shared between mother and child that renders the age-old dichotomy of “nature versus nurture” obsolete. Molded by both host biology and the physical relationship between mother and child, this microbial connection is formed at the earliest moments of life when the newborn’s skin and mucosal surfaces are seeded with microorganisms that […]


Diet-induced remission in chronic enteropathy is associated with altered microbial community structure and synthesis of secondary bile acids

ABSTRACT Background The microbiome has been implicated in the initiation and persistence of inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the fact that diet is one of the most potent modulators of microbiome composition and function and that dietary intervention is the first-line therapy for treating pediatric Crohn’s disease, the relationships between diet-induced remission, enteropathy, and microbiome are […]


A library of human gut bacterial isolates paired with longitudinal multiomics data enables mechanistic microbiome research

ABSTRACT Our understanding of how the gut microbiome interacts with its human host has been restrained by limited access to longitudinal datasets to examine stability and dynamics, and by having only a few isolates to test mechanistic hypotheses. Here, we present the Broad Institute-OpenBiome Microbiome Library (BIO-ML), a comprehensive collection of 7,758 gut bacterial isolates […]






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