Early life stress induces type 2 diabetes-like features in ageing mice

ABSTRACT Early life stress is known to impair intestinal barrier through induction of intestinal hyperpermeability, low-grade inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis in young adult rodents. Interestingly, those features are also observed in metabolic disorders (obesity and type 2 diabetes) that appear with ageing. Based on the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases, our study […]


Gut microbiota from high-risk men who have sex with men drive immune activation in gnotobiotic mice and in vitro HIV infection

ABSTRACT Men who have sex with men (MSM) have differences in immune activation and gut microbiome composition compared with men who have sex with women (MSW), even in the absence of HIV infection. Gut microbiome differences associated with HIV itself when controlling for MSM, as assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, are relatively subtle. Understanding whether […]


Duodenal bacterial proteolytic activity determines sensitivity to dietary antigen through protease-activated receptor-2

ABSTRACT Microbe-host interactions are generally homeostatic, but when dysfunctional, they can incite food sensitivities and chronic diseases. Celiac disease (CeD) is a food sensitivity characterized by a breakdown of oral tolerance to gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that duodenal biopsies from patients with active […]


Adaptive Strategies of the Candidate Probiotic E. coli Nissle in the Mammalian Gut

SUMMARY Probiotics are living microorganisms that are increasingly used as gastrointestinal therapeutics by virtue of their innate or engineered genetic function. Unlike abiotic therapeutics, probiotics can replicate in their intended site, subjecting their genomes and therapeutic properties to natural selection. We exposed the candidate probiotic E. coli Nissle (EcN) to the mouse gastrointestinal tract over […]


Subchronic low-dose 2,4-D exposure changed plasma acylcarnitine levels and induced gut microbiome perturbations in mice

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota critically confers various health benefits, whereas environmental chemicals can affect its constitution and functionality thereby increasing disease risk. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the toxic effects of a wildly-used herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on the gut microbiome and host using an occupationally relevant dose. A mouse model was […]


Alteration of GLP-1/GPR43 expression and gastrointestinal motility in dysbiotic mice treated with vancomycin

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in various aspects of host physiology, including metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) motility and hormonal secretion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-associated dysbiosis on metabolism and GI motility in relation to colonic expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and G protein coupled receptor (GPR)43. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) […]


Potential Functions of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome Inhabiting the Length of the Rat Digest Tract

ABSTRACT The rat is an important model animal used frequently in biological researches exploring the correlations between gut microbiome and a wide array of diseases. In this study, we used an extended ancestral-state reconstruction algorithm to predict the functional capabilities of the rat gastrointestinal microbiome. Our results indicate an apparent tendency toward metabolic heterogeneity along […]


Supplementation of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides from birth onwards improve social and reduce anxiety-like behaviour in male BALB/c mice

ABSTRACT Objective: The intestinal microbiota is acknowledged to be essential in brain development and behaviour. Their composition can be modulated by prebiotics such as short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (lcFOS). Several studies reported potential health benefit of prebiotics on behaviour. As the prebiotic mixture of scGOS and lcFOS is included in infant formula, we […]


Letrozole treatment of adult female mice results in a similar reproductive phenotype but distinct changes in metabolism and the gut microbiome compared to pubertal mice

ABSTRACT Background A majority of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic dysfunction that results in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We previously developed a pubertal mouse model using the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, which recapitulates many of the reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. To further our understanding of the effects of […]


Dietary inulin alleviates diverse stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus via anti-inflammation and modulating gut microbiota in db/db mice

ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely correlated with chronic low-grade inflammation and gut dysbiosis. Prebiotic inulin (INU) is conducive to modulate gut dysbiosis. However, the impact of dietary inulin on the diverse stages of T2DM remains largely unknown. In the present study, according to the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and oral glucose tolerance […]


Species identity dominates over environment in shaping the microbiota of small mammals

ABSTRACT The mammalian gut microbiota is considered pivotal to host fitness, yet the determinants of community composition remain poorly understood. Laboratory studies show that environmental factors, particularly diet, are important, while comparative work emphasises host genetics. Here, we compare the influence of host genetics and the environment on the microbiota of sympatric small mammal species […]


Six‐Week High‐Fat Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome and Promotes Cecal Inflammation, Endotoxin Production, and Simple Steatosis without Obesity in Male Rats

ABSTRACT Energy‐dense foods can alter gut microbial diversity. However, the physiological effects of diet‐induced microbial changes on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain debatable. We hypothesized that high‐fat intake for 6 weeks would promote intestinal dysbiosis by increasing gram‐positive bacteria, inducing the intestinal production of proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent hepatic lipid infiltration in […]


The gut microbiota regulates mouse biliary regenerative responses

ABSTRACT Injury to the biliary epithelium triggers cholangiopathies. However, factors involved in regulating the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that the gut microbiota is important in regulating hepatobiliary fibroproliferative regenerative process. In helminth Clonorchis sinensis-induced bile duct injury model, wild-type mice showed more extensive peribiliary fibroproliferative responses than non-littermate IL-33-deficient mice. However, these […]


Microbiota Depletion Impairs Thermogenesis of Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning of White Adipose Tissue

SUMMARY The relation between gut microbiota and the host has been suggested to benefit metabolic homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipocytes facilitate thermogenesis to maintain host core body temperature during cold exposure. However, the potential impact of gut microbiota on the thermogenic process is confused. Here, we evaluated how BAT and white adipose […]


The gut microbiota composition affects dietary polyphenols-mediated cognitive resilience in mice by modulating the bioavailability of phenolic acids

ABSTRACT Dietary polyphenols promote memory in models of sleep deprivation (SD), stress, and neurodegeneration. The biological properties of dietary polyphenols greatly depend upon the bioavailability of their phenolic metabolites derivatives, which are modulated by gut microbiota. We recently demonstrated that supplementation with grape-derived bioactive dietary polyphenol preparation (BDPP) improves SD-induced cognitive impairment. This study examined […]


Helminth-Based Product and the Microbiome of Mice with Lupus

ABSTRACT The hygiene hypothesis claims that the lack of exposure to microorganisms in developed countries correlates with a rise in the incidence of autoimmune diseases. It was also found that helminths are able to modulate the immune response in hosts in order to survive. Consequently, several successful trials using helminths as a treatment for autoimmune […]


Alterations of the mice gut microbiome via Schistosoma japonicum ova-induced granuloma

ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis, also called bilharziasis, is a neglected tropical disease induced by Schistosoma spp. that causes hundreds of millions of infections. Although Schistosoma ova-induced granulomas commonly cause inflammation, hyperplasia, ulceration, microabscess formation, and polyposis, the role of the egg granuloma on the gut microbiome remains unclear. To explore the role, gut microbial communities in mice […]


Helminth-Based Product and the Microbiome of Mice with Lupus

ABSTRACT The hygiene hypothesis claims that the lack of exposure to microorganisms in developed countries correlates with a rise in the incidence of autoimmune diseases. It was also found that helminths are able to modulate the immune response in hosts in order to survive. Consequently, several successful trials using helminths as a treatment for autoimmune […]


Western diet regulates immune status and the response to LPS-driven sepsis independent of diet-associated microbiome

ABSTRACT Sepsis is a deleterious immune response to infection that leads to organ failure and is the 11th most common cause of death worldwide. Despite plaguing humanity for thousands of years, the host factors that regulate this immunological response and subsequent sepsis severity and outcome are not fully understood. Here we describe how the Western […]


The Glucoamylase Inhibitor Acarbose Has a Diet-Dependent and Reversible Effect on the Murine Gut Microbiome

Abstract Acarbose is a safe and effective medication for type 2 diabetes that inhibits host glucoamylases to prevent starch digestion in the small intestines and thus decrease postprandial blood glucose levels. This results in an increase in dietary starch in the distal intestine, where it becomes food for the gut bacterial community. Here, we examined […]






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