Germ‐Free and Microbiota‐Associated Mice yield Small Intestinal Epithelial Organoids with Equivalent and Robust Transcriptome/Proteome Expression Phenotypes

Abstract Intestinal epithelial organoids established from gut tissue have become a widely used research tool. However, it remains unclear how environmental cues, divergent microbiota composition and other sources of variation before, during and after establishment confound organoid properties, and how these properties relate to the original tissue. While environmental influences cannot be easily addressed in […]


Self-reinoculation with fecal flora changes microbiota density and composition leading to an altered bile-acid profile in the mouse small intestine

ABSTRACT Background The upper gastrointestinal tract plays a prominent role in human physiology as the primary site for enzymatic digestion and nutrient absorption, immune sampling, and drug uptake. Alterations to the small intestine microbiome have been implicated in various human diseases, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and inflammatory bowel conditions. Yet, the physiological and functional roles […]


Gut microbiota mediates intermittent-fasting alleviation of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment

ABSTRACT Cognitive decline is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intermittent fasting (IF) is a promising dietary intervention for alleviating T2D symptoms, but its protective effect on diabetes-driven cognitive dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we find that a 28-day IF regimen for diabetic mice improves behavioral impairment via a microbiota-metabolites-brain axis: IF enhances […]


Ursolic acid improves the bacterial community mapping of the intestinal tract in liver fibrosis mice

ABSTRACT Liver fibrosis often appears in chronic liver disease, with extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition as the main feature. Due to the presence of the liver-gut axis, the destruction of intestinal homeostasis is often accompanied by the development of liver fibrosis. The inconsistent ecological environment of different intestinal sites may lead to differences in the microbiota. […]


Gastric bypass surgery in a rat model alters the community structure and functional composition of the intestinal microbiota independently of weight loss

Abstract Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a last-resort treatment to induce substantial and sustained weight loss in cases of severe obesity. This anatomical rearrangement affects the intestinal microbiota, but so far, little information is available on how it interferes with microbial functionality and microbial-host interactions independently of weight loss. Methods A rat model […]


Time of Feeding Alters Obesity-Associated Parameters and Gut Bacterial Communities, but Not Fungal Populations, in C57BL/6 Male Mice

ABSTRACT Background Fasting and timed feeding strategies normalize obesity parameters even under high-fat dietary intake. Although previous work demonstrated that these dietary strategies reduce adiposity and improve metabolic health, limited work has examined intestinal microbial communities. Objectives We determined whether timed feeding modifies the composition of the intestinal microbiome and mycobiome (yeast and fungi). Methods […]


Degeneration of the intestinal microbial community in PI3Kγ-knockout mice

Abstract Background and aim PI3Kγ is closely related to inflammation and cardiovascular diseases and thus, PI3Kγ inhibitors are candidate drugs for the treatment of these disorders. Considering the potential effect of the intestinal microbiome on inflammation and cardiovascular diseases, this study aimed to identify characteristics of the intestinal microbial community under PI3Kγ deficiency, to help […]


Prenatal exposure to glufosinate ammonium disturbs gut microbiome and induces behavioral abnormalities in mice

ABSTRACT Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is a widely used organophosphate herbicide, which could be commonly detected in body fluids of both pregnant women and newborns. Existing evidences indicate that GLA has reproductive toxicity, while data concerning the effects of prenatal GLA exposure on neurodevelopment is rather limited. Here we employed a mouse model exposed to GLA […]


Effect of probiotic administration on gut microbiota and depressive behaviors in mice

Abstract Background The gut microbiota is closely associated with the bidirectional gut-brain axis that modulates neuropsychological functions of the central nervous system, thereby affecting mental disorders such as depression. Although it is known that probiotics affect brain functions, the impact of probiotics on the regulation of the prevalence and composition of gut microbiota, leading to […]


Establishing or Exaggerating Causality for the Gut Microbiome: Lessons from Human Microbiota-Associated Rodents

ABSTRACT Human diseases are increasingly linked with an altered or “dysbiotic” gut microbiota, but whether such changes are causal, consequential, or bystanders to disease is, for the most part, unresolved. Human microbiota-associated (HMA) rodents have become a cornerstone of microbiome science for addressing causal relationships between altered microbiomes and host pathology. In a systematic review, […]


Early life microbiome perturbation alters pulmonary responses to ozone in male mice

ABSTRACT Early life changes in the microbiome contribute to the development of allergic asthma, but little is known about the importance of the microbiome for other forms of asthma. Ozone is a nonatopic asthma trigger that causes airway hyperresponsiveness and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis […]


Gut Microbiome as a Potential Factor for Modulating Resistance to Cancer Immunotherapy

Hidden benefits of a fecal transplant Our gut microbiota evolves as we age, yet its effects on host physiology are not clearly understood. Kundu et al. now attempt to elucidate these effects by transplanting the gut microbiota of either young or old donor mice into young germ-free recipient mice. They report that young germ-free mice […]


Butyrate attenuated fat gain through gut microbiota modulation in db/db mice following dapagliflozin treatment

Abstract We investigated the effect of a combination treatment with dapagliflozin (Dapa), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and butyrate on weight change in db/db mice. Six-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to four groups: vehicle with normal chow diet (NCD), Dapa with NCD, vehicle with 5% sodium butyrate-supplemented NCD (NaB), or Dapa with 5% NaB. After […]


Microbiota-targeted maternal antibodies protect neonates from enteric infection

Abstract Although maternal antibodies protect newborn babies from infection, little is known about how protective antibodies are induced without prior pathogen exposure. Here we show that neonatal mice that lack the capacity to produce IgG are protected from infection with the enteric pathogen enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by maternal natural IgG antibodies against the maternal microbiota […]


Bile acid metabolites control TH17 and Treg cell differentiation

Abstract Bile acids are abundant in the mammalian gut, where they undergo bacteria-mediated transformation to generate a large pool of bioactive molecules. Although bile acids are known to affect host metabolism, cancer progression and innate immunity, it is unknown whether they affect adaptive immune cells such as T helper cells that express IL-17a (TH17 cells) […]


Rapid and Concomitant Gut Microbiota and Endocannabinoidome Response to Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice

Abstract The intestinal microbiota and the expanded endocannabinoid (eCB) system, or endocannabinoidome (eCBome), have both been implicated in diet-induced obesity and dysmetabolism. These systems were recently suggested to interact during the development of obesity. We aimed at identifying the potential interactions between gut microbiota composition and the eCBome during the establishment of diet-induced obesity and […]


Depletion of microbiome-derived molecules in the host using Clostridium genetics

Clostridial metabolite production The clostridia are Firmicute bacterial commensals commonly found in the mammalian gut. Clostridia produce a range of metabolites that diffuse into the host’s circulation and have been difficult to manipulate genetically, but Guo et al. successfully developed a CRISPR-Cas9 deletion system in Clostridium sporogenes (see the Perspective by Henke and Clardy). The […]


Amelioration of metabolic syndrome by metformin associates with reduced indices of low-grade inflammation independently of the gut microbiota

ABSTRACT Metformin beneficially impacts several aspects of metabolic syndrome including dysglycemia, obesity, and liver dysfunction, thus making it a widely used frontline treatment for early-stage type 2 diabetes, which is associated with these disorders. Several mechanisms of action for metformin have been proposed, including that it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, possibly as a result […]


Oral Administration of miR-30d from Feces of MS Patients Suppresses MS-like Symptoms in Mice by Expanding Akkermansia muciniphila

Summary Fecal transfer from healthy donors is being explored as a microbiome modality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to affect the microbiome. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been shown to have an altered gut microbiome. Here, we unexpectedly found that transfer of feces harvested at peak disease from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of […]


Absorptive transport of amino acids by the rat colon

Abstract The capacity of the colon to absorb microbially-produced amino acids (AAs) and the underlying mechanisms of AA transport are incompletely defined. We measured the profile of 16 fecal AAs along the rat ceco-colonic axis and compared unidirectional absorptive AA fluxes across mucosal tissues isolated from the rat jejunum, cecum, and proximal colon using an […]






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