The gut microbiota influences skeletal muscle mass and function in mice

ABSTRACT The functional interactions between the gut microbiota and the host are important for host physiology, homeostasis, and sustained health. We compared the skeletal muscle of germ-free mice that lacked a gut microbiota to the skeletal muscle of pathogen-free mice that had a gut microbiota. Compared to pathogen-free mouse skeletal muscle, germ-free mouse skeletal muscle […]

Loss of gut barrier integrity triggers activation of islet-reactive T cells and autoimmune diabetes

Significance Functional loss of gut barrier integrity with subsequent increased antigen trafficking and occurrence of low-grade intestinal inflammation precede the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in patients and preclinical models, thus suggesting that these events are mechanistically linked to the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. However, a causal relationship between increased intestinal permeability and […]

The microbiota protects from viral-induced neurologic damage through microglia-intrinsic TLR signaling

ABSTRACT Symbiotic microbes impact the function and development of the central nervous system (CNS); however, little is known about the contribution of the microbiota during viral-induced neurologic damage. We identify that commensals aid in host defense following infection with a neurotropic virus through enhancing microglia function. Germfree mice or animals that receive antibiotics are unable […]

Potential roles of gut microbiome and metabolites in modulating ALS in mice

ABSTRACT Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically-driven neurodegenerative disorder, whose clinical manifestations may be influenced by unknown environmental factors. We demonstrate that ALS-prone SOD1-Tg mice feature a pre-symptomatic, vivarium-dependent dysbiosis and altered metabolite configuration, coupled with an exacerbated disease in germ-free or wide-spectrum antibiotic treatment conditions. We correlate 11 distinct commensals at our vivarium […]

Intestinal infection triggers Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms in Pink1−/− mice

ABSTRACT Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. Although the mechanisms that trigger the loss of dopaminergic neurons are unclear, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are thought to have key roles1,2. An early-onset form of Parkinson’s disease is associated with mutations in […]

Effects of microbiota-directed foods in gnotobiotic animals and undernourished children

Malnutrition and dietary repair Childhood malnutrition is accompanied by growth stunting and immaturity of the gut microbiota. Even after therapeutic intervention with standard commercial complementary foods, children may fail to thrive. Gehrig et al. and Raman et al. monitored metabolic parameters in healthy Bangladeshi children and those recovering from severe acute malnutrition. The authors investigated […]

Pomegranate peel extract alters the microbiome in mice and dysbiosis caused by Citrobacter rodentium infection

ABSTRACT Treatment of mice with a pomegranate peel extract (PPX) decreased the pathogenicity of Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) infections. Here, we investigate the effects of PPX on the microbiome of uninfected or Cr‐infected C3H/HeNCr mice by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mice were treated with water or PPX for 14 days, feces were collected, and then, the […]

Vendor‐Specific Microbiome Controls both Acute and Chronic Murine Lung Allograft Rejection by Altering CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Levels

ABSTRACT Despite standardized post‐operative care some lung transplant patients suffer multiple episodes of acute and chronic rejection while others avoid graft problems for reasons that are poorly understood. Using an established model of C57BL/10 to C57BL/6 minor antigen mismatched single lung transplantation we now demonstrate that the recipient microbiota contributes to variability in the alloimmune […]

Programmable bacteria induce durable tumor regression and systemic antitumor immunity

ABSTRACT Synthetic biology is driving a new era of medicine through the genetic programming of living cells1,2. This transformative approach allows for the creation of engineered systems that intelligently sense and respond to diverse environments, ultimately adding specificity and efficacy that extends beyond the capabilities of molecular-based therapeutics3,4,5,6. One particular area of focus has been […]

Enrichment of intestinal Lactobacillus by enhanced secretory IgA coating alters glucose homeostasis in P2rx7−/− mice

ABSTRACT Safety concerns arising from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops remains a controversial subject. We report here a faecal microbiota compositional analysis in Wistar rats from the GMO90 + study, which fed glyphosate-tolerant NK603 (+/− Roundup application) and Bt toxin MON810 GM maize for 6 months in comparison to their […]

Dietary fructose-induced gut dysbiosis promotes mouse hippocampal neuroinflammation: a benefit of short-chain fatty acids

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Western-style diets arouse neuroinflammation and impair emotional and cognitive behavior in humans and animals. Our previous study showed that a high-fructose diet caused the hippocampal neuroinflammatory response and neuronal loss in animals, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Here, alterations in the gut microbiota and intestinal epithelial barrier were investigated as the causes […]

Hypergravity disrupts murine intestinal microbiota

ABSTRACT During spaceflight, organisms are subjected to various physical stressors including modification of gravity (G) that, associated with lifestyle, could lead to impaired immunity, intestinal dysbiosis and thus potentially predispose astronauts to illness. Whether space travel affects microbiota homeostasis has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in intestinal […]

Environmental microcystin targets the microbiome and increases the risk of intestinal inflammatory pathology via NOX2 in underlying murine model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

ABSTRACT With increased climate change pressures likely to influence harmful algal blooms, exposure to microcystin, a known hepatotoxin and a byproduct of cyanobacterial blooms can be a risk factor for NAFLD associated comorbidities. Using both in vivo and in vitro experiments we show that microcystin exposure in NAFLD mice cause rapid alteration of gut microbiome, […]

Neuroinflammation in Murine Cirrhosis is Dependent on the Gut Microbiome and is Attenuated by Fecal Transplant

ABSTRACT Cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with an altered gut‐liver‐brain axis. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) after antibiotics improves outcomes in HE, but the impact on brain function is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of colonization using human donors in germ‐free (GF) mice on the gut‐liver‐brain axis. GF […]

Misoprostol protects mice against severe Clostridium difficile infection and promotes recovery of the gut microbiota after antibiotic perturbation

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections worldwide and an urgent public health threat. Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated an association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure and enhanced susceptibility to, and severity of, CDI. NSAIDs target cyclooxygenase enzymes and inhibit the production of prostaglandins (PGs), but the […]

Relationship between faecal microbiota and plasma metabolome in rats fed NK603 and MON810 GM maize from the GMO90+ study

ABSTRACT Safety concerns arising from the consumption of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops remains a controversial subject. We report here a faecal microbiota compositional analysis in Wistar rats from the GMO90 + study, which fed glyphosate-tolerant NK603 (+/− Roundup application) and Bt toxin MON810 GM maize for 6 months in comparison to their […]

Changes in the gut microbiome and fermentation products concurrent with enhanced longevity in acarbose-treated mice

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Treatment with the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose increases median lifespan by approximately 20% in male mice and 5% in females. This longevity extension differs from dietary restriction based on a number of features, including the relatively small effects on weight and the sex-specificity of the lifespan effect. By inhibiting host digestion, acarbose increases the […]

Dynamic and Asymmetric Changes of the Microbial Communities after Cohousing in Laboratory Mice

SUMMARY Horizontal transmission of the microbiota between different individuals is widely used to normalize the microbiota in laboratory mice. However, little is known about the dynamics of microbial communities and the level of microbiota transmission after cohousing. We extensively analyzed the fecal microbiota in Jackson and Taconic C57BL/6 mice to study horizontal transmission after weaning. […]

High fat diet alters gut microbiota but not spatial working memory in early middle-aged Sprague Dawley rats

ABSTRACT As the global population ages, and rates of dementia rise, understanding lifestyle factors that play a role in the development and acceleration of cognitive decline is vital to creating therapies and recommendations to improve quality of later life. Obesity has been shown to increase risk for dementia. However, the specific mechanisms for obesity-induced cognitive […]

Heterochronic faecal transplantation boosts gut germinal centres in aged mice

DISCUSSION The composition of the commensal gut microbiota changes with age, which is linked with an increase in age-associated morbidities such as frailty2,4 and intestinal disorders30, but the cause of this shift in the gut microbial composition is unknown. Here we sought to determine whether there is a causal link between age-dependent changes in the […]

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