The fungal mycobiome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via activation of MBL

ABSTRACT Bacterial dysbiosis accompanies carcinogenesis in malignancies such as colon and liver cancer, and has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)1. However, the mycobiome has not been clearly implicated in tumorigenesis. Here we show that fungi migrate from the gut lumen to the pancreas, and that this is implicated in […]

Microbiota of MR1 deficient mice confer resistance against Clostridium difficile infection

ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to […]

Effects from diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity can be ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation: A multiomics approach

ABSTRACT Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; […]

Metformin Alters the Duodenal Microbiome and Decreases the Incidence of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Promoted by Diet-induced Obesity

ABSTRACT Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma’s (PDAC) growing incidence has been linked to the rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous work we have shown that metformin can prevent the increased incidence of PDAC in a KrasG12D mouse model subjected to a diet high in fat and calories (HFCD). One potential way that […]

MHC Class II Antigen Presentation by the Intestinal Epithelium Initiates Graft-versus-Host Disease and Is Influenced by the Microbiota

SUMMARY Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the principal determinant of lethality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we examined the mechanisms that initiate GVHD, including the relevant antigen-presenting cells. MHC class II was expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) within the ileum at steady state but was absent from the […]

Saponins from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. regulates gut microbiota and its metabolites during alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis in rats

ABSTRACT Gut microbiota and their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Total Clematis triterpenoid saponins (CTSs) prepared from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. possess therapeutic benefits for arthritic diseases. However, the poor pharmacokinetic properties of CTSs have obstructed the translation of these natural agents to drugs. Here, we examined […]

The interaction between the gut Microbiota and herbal medicines

ABSTRACT As technologies used to study the gut microbiota have improved, the relationship between the gut microbiota and health has become increasingly obvious. Herbal medicines have been used for thousands of years, and are known to be “simple, convenient, cheap, and effective”. However, due to many factors, such as their complex composition, unclear active compounds, […]

Muscle strength is increased in mice that are colonized with microbiota from high-functioning older adults

ABSTRACT Evidence in support of a gut-muscle axis has been reported in rodents, but studies in older adult humans are limited. Accordingly, the primary goals of the present study were to compare gut microbiome composition in older adults that differed in terms of the percentage of whole body lean mass and physical functioning (high-functioning, HF, […]

Effects of theabrownin on serum metabolite and gut microbiome in rats with high-sugar diet

ABSTRACT Evidence has accumulated that the gut microbiota is an important environmental factor contributing to obesity by altering host energy harvest and storage. We performed a high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing association study and serum metabolomics profiling in rat with high-sugar diet. Our studies revealed that high sugar diet reduced the diversity of cecal microorganisms, while […]

Antibiotics-Driven Gut Microbiome Perturbation Alters Immunity to Vaccines in Humans

SUMMARY Emerging evidence indicates a central role for the microbiome in immunity. However, causal evidence in humans is sparse. Here, we administered broad-spectrum antibiotics to healthy adults prior and subsequent to seasonal influenza vaccination. Despite a 10,000-fold reduction in gut bacterial load and long-lasting diminution in bacterial diversity, antibody responses were not significantly affected. However, […]

Maternal microbiota in pregnancy and early life

A microbial bond is shared between mother and child that renders the age-old dichotomy of “nature versus nurture” obsolete. Molded by both host biology and the physical relationship between mother and child, this microbial connection is formed at the earliest moments of life when the newborn’s skin and mucosal surfaces are seeded with microorganisms that […]

Diet-induced remission in chronic enteropathy is associated with altered microbial community structure and synthesis of secondary bile acids

ABSTRACT Background The microbiome has been implicated in the initiation and persistence of inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the fact that diet is one of the most potent modulators of microbiome composition and function and that dietary intervention is the first-line therapy for treating pediatric Crohn’s disease, the relationships between diet-induced remission, enteropathy, and microbiome are […]

A library of human gut bacterial isolates paired with longitudinal multiomics data enables mechanistic microbiome research

ABSTRACT Our understanding of how the gut microbiome interacts with its human host has been restrained by limited access to longitudinal datasets to examine stability and dynamics, and by having only a few isolates to test mechanistic hypotheses. Here, we present the Broad Institute-OpenBiome Microbiome Library (BIO-ML), a comprehensive collection of 7,758 gut bacterial isolates […]

Genetic determinants of gut microbiota composition and bile acid profiles in mice

ABSTRACT The microbial communities that inhabit the distal gut of humans and other mammals exhibit large inter-individual variation. While host genetics is a known factor that influences gut microbiota composition, the mechanisms underlying this variation remain largely unknown. Bile acids (BAs) are hormones that are produced by the host and chemically modified by gut bacteria. […]

The gut microbiome derived from anorexia nervosa patients impairs weight gain and behavioral performance in female mice

ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa (AN) results in gut dysbiosis, but whether the dysbiosis contributes to AN-specific pathologies such as poor weight gain and neuropsychiatric abnormalities remains unclear. To address this, germ-free mice were reconstituted with the microbiota of four AN restricting-type patients (gAN mice) and four healthy control individuals (gHC mice). The effects of gut microbes […]

Reproducible changes in the gut microbiome suggest a shift in microbial and host metabolism during spaceflight

ABSTRACT Background Space environment imposes a range of challenges to mammalian physiology and the gut microbiota, and interactions between the two are thought to be important in mammalian health in space. While previous findings have demonstrated a change in the gut microbial community structure during spaceflight, specific environmental factors that alter the gut microbiome and […]

Murine Genetic Background has a Stronger Impact on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota than Maternal Inoculation or Exposure to Unlike Exogenous Microbiota

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, affected by both environmental factors and host genetics. Here we aim at uncovering the bacterial taxa whose gut persistence is controlled by host genetic variation. We used a murine model based on inbred lines BALB/c and C57BL/6J and their F1 reciprocal hybrids (♀C57BL/6J×♂BALB/c; ♀BALB/c×♂C57BL/6J). To guarantee genetic […]

Whole Body Vibration-Induced Omental Macrophage Polarization and Fecal Microbiome Modification in a Murine Model

ABSTRACT Human nutrient metabolism, developed millions of years ago, is anachronistic. Adaptive features that offered survival advantages are now great liabilities. The current dietary pattern, coupled with massively reduced physical activities, causes an epidemic of obesity and chronic metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chronic inflammation is a major contributing factor to the […]

Baseline microbiota composition modulates antibiotic-mediated effects on the gut microbiota and host

ABSTRACT Background Normal mammalian development and homeostasis are dependent upon the gut microbiota. Antibiotics, essential for the treatment and prophylaxis of bacterial infections, can have collateral effects on the gut microbiota composition, which can in turn have far-reaching and potentially deleterious consequences for the host. However, the magnitude and duration of such collateral effects appear […]

Predominant Effect of Host Genetics on Levels of Lactobacillus johnsonii Bacteria in the Mouse Gut

ABSTRACT The gut microbiota is strongly associated with the well-being of the host. Its composition is affected by environmental factors, such as food and maternal inoculation, while the relative impact of the host’s genetics have been recently uncovered. Here, we studied the effect of the host genetic background on the composition of intestinal bacteria in […]

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