Epidemiological studies have shown that children born by cesarean section (CS) are at higher risk of developing chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that a skewed gut microbial colonization process early in life and altered priming of the immune system are causative. The aim of this study was to clarify whether impaired regulatory immunity in CS-delivered C57BL/6 mice is dependent on gut microbiota (GM) disturbances. The GM of conventionally bred mice born by CS differed clearly from mice born by vaginal delivery. The proportion of regulatory T cells was reduced in mice born by CS, whereas the invariant NKT (iNKT) cell subset was increased compared with vaginal delivery mice. In addition, regulatory markers (Foxp3, Il10, Ctla4) and macrophage markers (Cd11c, Egr2, Nos2) were downregulated, whereas iNKT markers (Il4, Il15) were upregulated in ileum of CS-delivered mice.
Read more at: J Immunol