Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; therefore, the manipulation of gut microbiota may represent an accurate strategy to understand its relationship with obesity caused by diet. Fecal microbiota transplantation, during which fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted to an obese subject, has aroused interest as an effective approach for the treatment of obesity. To determine its success, a multiomics approach was used that combined metagenomics and metaproteomics to study microbiota composition and function.
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