Laboratory mice are a mainstay of biomedical research and have been instrumental for many important discoveries in the field of immunology. However, there are also major limitations, including conflicting results rooted in divergent microbiota among research facilities and the limited ability to predict the complex immune responses of humans. Recent studies have shown that conventional laboratory mice are too far removed from natural environmental conditions to faithfully mirror the physiology of free-living mammals such as humans. Mammals and their immune systems evolved to survive and thrive in a microbial world and behave differently in a sanitized environment.
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