H1 parvovirus (H1PV) infection in rats is of concern to the research community as infection may compromise rodent-based experiments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of H1PV infection on rat gut microbiota. Inbred Wistar rats were infected with H1PV by routine gavage and clinical signs were recorded. Gross anatomical and histopathological examination of the gut was performed, as was immune cytokine analysis. The cecal contents were also collected for 16S rRNA sequencing. Gross anatomical examination showed distention of the ileum associated with flatulence after infection, while histopathological examination showed hyperemia and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum. Upregulation of the interleukin-6 in sera in H1PV infected rats was also detected. The gut microbiota had been significantly changed in H1PV infected rats: there was a reduction in several bacteria species including probiotic bacteria from the genera Parabacteroides and Butyricicoccus, while others were increased, including those from the genera Methanobrevibacter and Syntrophococcus.
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